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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
State and Local Homeland Security: Unresolved Issues for the 109th Congress
Arguably, the three most important homeland security public laws enacted following the terrorist attacks on September 2001 are the USA PATRIOT Act, the Homeland Security Act of 2002, and the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004. This report describes each of these pieces of legislation and their respective domestic security enhancements. Many important state and local homeland security policy issues remain, separate from these three laws, which the 109th Congress might address. This report also describes these such issues, which include unmet emergency responder needs, absence of emergency responder equipment standards, and the development of state and local homeland security strategies, among others. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10370/
Department of Homeland Security: State and Local Preparedness Issues
The Homeland Security Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-296) makes the new Department of Homeland Security (DHS) responsible for providing assistance to state and local governments to ensure adequate preparedness for all disasters, including terrorist attacks. Several federal entities with functions relating to state and local preparedness, ranging from entire independent agencies to units of agencies and departments, will be transferred to the new department. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2782/
The Department of Homeland Security: State and Local Preparedness Issues
Both H.R. 5005 and S. 2452 propose a new Department of Homeland Security (DHS), which would have a number of responsibilities relating to state and local preparedness for potential terrorist attacks. This report discusses selected state and local preparedness issues that specifically pertain to the proposed Emergency Preparedness and Response Division of the new department.1 The report does not, however, discuss certain issues, such as the impact of integrating selected offices from the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) into a new DHS,2 and the degree of authority the DHS would need to effectively evaluate state and local assistance programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2783/
State and Local Preparedness for Terrorism: Selected Policy Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2381/
State and Local Preparedness for Terrorism: Policy Issues and Options
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2380/
State and Local Preparedness for Terrorism: Policy Issues and Options
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2379/
Department of Homeland Security: State and Local Preparedness Issues
The Homeland Security Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-296) makes the new Department of Homeland Security (DHS) responsible for providing assistance to state and local governments to ensure adequate preparedness for all disasters, including terrorist attacks. Several federal entities with functions relating to state and local preparedness, ranging from entire independent agencies to units of agencies and departments, will be transferred to the new department. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4601/
Department of Homeland Security: State and Local Preparedness Issues
The Homeland Security Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-296) makes the new Department of Homeland Security (DHS) responsible for providing assistance to state and local governments to ensure adequate preparedness for all disasters, including terrorist attacks. Several federal entities with functions relating to state and local preparedness, ranging from entire independent agencies to units of agencies and departments, will be transferred to the new department. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4600/
State and Local Homeland Security: Unresolved Issues for the 109th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9808/
Authority of State and Local Police to Enforce Federal Immigration Law
This report discusses the authority of state and local law enforcement to assist in the enforcement of federal immigration law through the investigation and arrest of persons believed to have violated such laws. It describes current provisions in federal law that permit state and local police to enforce immigration law directly, analyzes major cases concerning the ability of states and localities to assist in immigration enforcement, and briefly examines opinions on the issue by the Office of Legal Counsel (OLC) within the Department of Justice. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31375/
Locally Operated Levees: Issues and Federal Programs
The report discusses the role of levees in flood risk reduction, the shared responsibilities for levees in the United States, and the role of three agencies: FEMA, the Corps, and the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). It also discusses federal assistance for levees, describes the debate about whether levees investments have a role in federal flood mitigation programs, and compares Corps, FEMA, and NRCS activities and authorities. Finally, the report outlines policy options for locally-operated levees that might be considered by the 112th Congress. Legislative proposals in the 111th Congress are discussed in an Appendix. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99055/
Unfunded Mandates Reform Act Summarized
The term "unfunded mandates" generally refers to requirements that a unit of government imposes without providing funds to pay for costs of compliance. The Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (UMRA) establishes mechanisms to limit federal imposition of unfunded mandates on other levels of government and on the private sector. This report provides a summary of UMRA and any related issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10199/
Community Development Block Grants: Funding and Other Issues in the 106th Congress
In this report Congress addresses a number of community development issues, including reauthorization of the CDBG and revision of the CDBG program definitions of entitlement communities and low- and moderate-income households. Congress also will consider legislation appropriating funds for the program for FY2001, including funding for a number of new initiatives proposed by the Clinton Administration. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1305/
House Apportionment 2012: States Gaining, Losing, and on the Margin
This report examines the distribution of seats based on the most recent estimates of the population of the states (as of July 1, 2012). It explores the question of, what, if any, would be the impact on the distribution of seats in the U.S. House of Representatives if the apportionment were conducted today, using the most recent official U.S. Census population figures available. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227701/
Forest Service Receipt-Sharing Payments: Proposals for Change
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1097/
Year 2000 Computer Problem: State Government Issues
The federal government sends and receives data from the states in support of many social service programs. Examples of such programs are: Medicare, Medicaid, Welfare, Food Stamps, and Unemployment Insurance. The federal government will not be able to deliver critical social services if data exchanges with state governments are not Y2K- compliant, yet there is no complete picture of their readiness. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1030/
FY2009 Appropriations for State and Local Homeland Security
Congress appropriated, in P.L. 110-329, approximately $4.36 billion for state and local homeland security assistance programs. This is approximately $135 million more than was appropriated in FY2008 ($4.22 billion). Congress chose not to fund the Real ID program in FY2009, however, it did appropriate funding ($2 million) for a new assistance program titled the Center for Counterterrorism and Cyber Crime at Norwich University in Northfield, Vermont. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10725/
FY2009 Appropriations for State and Local Homeland Security
Congress appropriated, in P.L. 110-329, approximately $4.36 billion for state and local homeland security assistance programs. This is approximately $135 million more than was appropriated in FY2008 ($4.22 billion). Congress chose not to fund the Real ID program in FY2009, however, it did appropriate funding ($2 million) for a new assistance program titled the Center for Counterterrorism and Cyber Crime at Norwich University in Northfield, Vermont. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10726/
TANF Sanctions - Brief Summary
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1945/
Federalism and the Constitution: Limits on Congressional Power
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1942/
Crime Control: The Federal Response
Under the federal system in the United States, the states and localities traditionally have held the major responsibility for prevention and control of crime and maintenance of order. For most of the Republic’s history, “police powers” in the broad sense were reserved to the states under the Tenth Amendment to the Constitution. Many still hold that view, but others see a string of court decisions in recent decades as providing the basis for a far more active federal role. Several bills are discussed in this report that address issues related to crime, juvenile justice, and school violence. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1529/
The State Children's Health Insurance Program: Eligibility, Enrollment, and Program Funding
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1244/
Speed Limits for Motor Vehicles
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8884/
Electric Utility Restructuring: Overview of Basic Policy Questions
Proposals to increase competition in the electric utility industry involve segmenting electric functions (generation, transmission, distribution) that are currently integrated (or bundled) in most cases (both in terms of corporate and rate structures). This report identifies five basic issues this effort raises for the Congress to consider as the debate on restructuring proceeds. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs958/
Welfare Reform: TANF Trends and Data
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5708/
Social Services Block Grant (Title XX of the Social Security Act)
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5385/
Federalism, State Sovereignty and the Constitution: Basis and Limits of Congressional Power
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5387/
Social Services Block Grant (Title XX of the Social Security Act)
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5384/
Federalism, State Sovereignty and the Constitution: Basis and Limits of Congressional Power
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5386/
Social Services Block Grant (Title XX of the Social Security Act)
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5383/
State Election Laws: Overview of Statutes Regarding Emergency Election Postponement Within the State
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5862/
Right to a Clean Environment Provisions in State Constitutions, and Arguments as to a Federal Counterpart
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1023/
Crime Control: The Federal Response
Under the federal system in the United States, the states and localities traditionally have held the major responsibility for prevention and control of crime and maintenance of order. For most of the Republic’s history, “police powers” in the broad sense were reserved to the states under the Tenth Amendment to the Constitution. Many still hold that view, but others see a string of court decisions in recent decades as providing the basis for a far more active federal role. Several bills are discussed in this report that address issues related to crime, juvenile justice, and Congress’ evolving role in crime legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2350/
Unfunded Mandate Reform Act: A Brief Summary
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs259/
National Minimum Drinking Age: Provisions and Analysis
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8865/
The State Children's Health Insurance Program: Eligibility, Enrollment, and Program Funding
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6518/
Journalists' Privilege to Withhold Information in Judicial and Other Proceedings: State Shield Statutes
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6147/
Crime Control: The Federal Response
Under the federal system in the United States, the states and localities traditionally have held the major responsibility for prevention and control of crime and maintenance of order. For most of the Republic’s history, “police powers” in the broad sense were reserved to the states under the Tenth Amendment to the Constitution. Many still hold that view, but others see a string of court decisions in recent decades as providing the basis for a far more active federal role. Several bills are discussed in this report that address issues related to crime, juvenile justice, and school violence. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2348/
Crime Control: The Federal Response
Under the federal system in the United States, the states and localities traditionally have held the major responsibility for prevention and control of crime and maintenance of order. For most of the Republic’s history, “police powers” in the broad sense were reserved to the states under the Tenth Amendment to the Constitution. Many still hold that view, but others see a string of court decisions in recent decades as providing the basis for a far more active federal role. Several bills are discussed in this report that address issues related to crime, juvenile justice, and Congress’ evolving role in crime legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2349/
State Sales Taxation of Internet Transactions
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1979/
Preemption Language in Federal Environmental Statutes
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs970/
Electric Utility Restructuring: Overview of Basic Policy Questions
Proposals to increase competition in the electric utility industry involve segmenting electric functions (generation, transmission, distribution) that are currently integrated (or bundled) in most cases (both in terms of corporate and rate structures). This report identifies five basic issues this effort raises for the Congress to consider as the debate on restructuring proceeds. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs426/
New Welfare Law: Comparison of the New Block Grant Program with Aid to Families with Dependent Children
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs491/
Crime Control: The Federal Response
Under the federal system in the United States, the states and localities traditionally have held the major responsibility for prevention and control of crime and maintenance of order. For most of the Republic’s history, “police powers” in the broad sense were reserved to the states under the Tenth Amendment to the Constitution. Many still hold that view, but others see a string of court decisions in recent decades as providing the basis for a far more active federal role. Several bills are discussed in this report that address issues related to crime, juvenile justice, and Congress’ evolving role in crime legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4085/
Crime Control: The Federal Response
Under the federal system in the United States, the states and localities traditionally have held the major responsibility for prevention and control of crime and maintenance of order. For most of the Republic’s history, “police powers” in the broad sense were reserved to the states under the Tenth Amendment to the Constitution. Many still hold that view, but others see a string of court decisions in recent decades as providing the basis for a far more active federal role. Several bills are discussed in this report that address issues related to crime, juvenile justice, and Congress’ evolving role in crime legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4087/
Crime Control: The Federal Response
Under the federal system in the United States, the states and localities traditionally have held the major responsibility for prevention and control of crime and maintenance of order. For most of the Republic’s history, “police powers” in the broad sense were reserved to the states under the Tenth Amendment to the Constitution. Many still hold that view, but others see a string of court decisions in recent decades as providing the basis for a far more active federal role. Several bills are discussed in this report that address issues related to crime, juvenile justice, and Congress’ evolving role in crime legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4088/
Crime Control: The Federal Response
Under the federal system in the United States, the states and localities traditionally have held the major responsibility for prevention and control of crime and maintenance of order. For most of the Republic’s history, “police powers” in the broad sense were reserved to the states under the Tenth Amendment to the Constitution. Many still hold that view, but others see a string of court decisions in recent decades as providing the basis for a far more active federal role. Several bills are discussed in this report that address issues related to crime, juvenile justice, and Congress’ evolving role in crime legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4089/
Crime Control: The Federal Response
Under the federal system in the United States, the states and localities traditionally have held the major responsibility for prevention and control of crime and maintenance of order. For most of the Republic’s history, “police powers” in the broad sense were reserved to the states under the Tenth Amendment to the Constitution. Many still hold that view, but others see a string of court decisions in recent decades as providing the basis for a far more active federal role. Several bills are discussed in this report that address issues related to crime, juvenile justice, and Congress’ evolving role in crime legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4086/
The New Welfare Law: Temporary Assistance for Needy Families
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs492/
American Federalism, 1776 to 1997: Significant Events
This report identifies several significant eras and events in the evolution of American federalism and provides a capsule description or discussion of each. It should be noted that among experts in the field of federalism there may be a general consensus concerning the evolution of American federalism; however, the choice of events and scholarly interpretations of such events may vary and are by nature subjective. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs490/