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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
U.S. Space Programs: Civilian, Military, and Commercial

U.S. Space Programs: Civilian, Military, and Commercial

Date: June 28, 2002
Creator: Smith, Marcia S
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Space Programs: Civilian, Military, and Commercial

U.S. Space Programs: Civilian, Military, and Commercial

Date: September 4, 2002
Creator: Smith, Marcia S
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Space Programs: Civilian, Military, and Commercial

U.S. Space Programs: Civilian, Military, and Commercial

Date: December 4, 2002
Creator: Smith, Marcia S
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Space Programs: Civilian, Military, and Commercial

U.S. Space Programs: Civilian, Military, and Commercial

Date: February 3, 2003
Creator: Smith, Marcia S
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Space Programs: Civilian, Military, and Commercial

U.S. Space Programs: Civilian, Military, and Commercial

Date: February 25, 2003
Creator: Smith, Marcia S
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Space Programs: Civilian, Military, and Commercial

U.S. Space Programs: Civilian, Military, and Commercial

Date: April 11, 2003
Creator: Smith, Marcia S
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Space Programs: Civilian, Military, and Commercial

U.S. Space Programs: Civilian, Military, and Commercial

Date: April 22, 2003
Creator: Smith, Marcia S
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Space Programs: Civilian, Military, and Commercial

U.S. Space Programs: Civilian, Military, and Commercial

Date: April 28, 2003
Creator: Smith, Marcia S
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Space Programs: Civilian, Military, and Commercial

U.S. Space Programs: Civilian, Military, and Commercial

Date: May 20, 2003
Creator: Smith, Marcia S
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Space Programs: Civilian, Military, and Commercial

U.S. Space Programs: Civilian, Military, and Commercial

Date: May 29, 2003
Creator: Smith, Marcia S
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Space Programs: Civilian, Military, and Commercial

U.S. Space Programs: Civilian, Military, and Commercial

Date: June 19, 2003
Creator: Smith, Marcia S
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Space Programs: Civilian, Military, and Commercial

U.S. Space Programs: Civilian, Military, and Commercial

Date: July 10, 2003
Creator: Smith, Marcia S
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Space Programs: Civilian, Military, and Commercial

U.S. Space Programs: Civilian, Military, and Commercial

Date: July 31, 2003
Creator: Smith, Marcia S
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Space Programs: Civilian, Military, and Commercial

U.S. Space Programs: Civilian, Military, and Commercial

Date: September 2, 2003
Creator: Smith, Marcia S
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Space Programs: Civilian, Military, and Commercial

U.S. Space Programs: Civilian, Military, and Commercial

Date: November 17, 2005
Creator: Smith, Marcia S
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The International Space Station and the Iran Nonproliferation Act (INA): The Bush Administration's Proposed INA Amendment

The International Space Station and the Iran Nonproliferation Act (INA): The Bush Administration's Proposed INA Amendment

Date: November 14, 2005
Creator: Smith, Marcia S & Squassoni, Sharon
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China's Space Program: An Overview

China's Space Program: An Overview

Date: October 21, 2003
Creator: Smith, Marcia S.
Description: This report discusses the nature and scope of the Chinese space program. The People's Republic of China launched its first astronaut, or "taikonaut," Lt. Col. Yang Liwei, on October 15, 2003 Beijing time (October 16 Eastern Daylight Time). China thus became only the third country, after Russia and the United States, able to launch humans into orbit. Lt. Col. Yang landed on October 16 Beijing time (October 15 EDT) after making 14 orbits (21 hours and 23 minutes).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Space Stations

Space Stations

Date: November 3, 2003
Creator: Smith, Marcia S.
Description: This report looks into Congress' continued debate regarding NASA's International Space Station (ISS) program to build a permanently-occupied space station in Earth orbit where astronauts live and conduct research. NASA expects that research performed in the near-zero gravity environment of the space station will result in new discoveries in life sciences, biomedicine, and materials sciences. Current congressional space station debate focuses on the impact of the space shuttle Columbia tragedy on the ISS program; the possibility that portions of the space station may not be built for cost reasons; and whether Russia can fulfill its commitments to ISS.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The International Space Station and the Iran Nonproliferation Act (INA): The Bush Administration's Proposed INA Amendment

The International Space Station and the Iran Nonproliferation Act (INA): The Bush Administration's Proposed INA Amendment

Date: December 5, 2005
Creator: Smith, Marcia S. & Squassoni, Sharon
Description: The Iran Nonproliferation Act (P.L. 106-178), as originally enacted, prohibited the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) from purchasing Russian goods and services for the U.S.-led International Space Station (ISS) unless the President certified that Russia was not proliferating certain technologies to Iran. On July 12, 2005, the Bush Administration submitted to Congress an amendment to allow NASA to purchase goods and services from Russia to support the ISS. That presented a classic policy dilemma. Without access to Russian spacecraft, the U.S. use of the ISS could be extremely limited. Yet Russian entities were continuing proliferation activities relating to missile proliferation according to the Department of State. This report explains the Bush Administration proposal and resulting congressional action.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Iran Nonproliferation Act and the International Space Station:  Issues and Options

The Iran Nonproliferation Act and the International Space Station: Issues and Options

Date: March 2, 2005
Creator: Squassoni, Sharon & Smith, Marcia S
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Iran Nonproliferation Act and the International Space Station: Issues and Options

The Iran Nonproliferation Act and the International Space Station: Issues and Options

Date: March 2, 2005
Creator: Squassoni, Sharon & Smith, Marcia S.
Description: The Iran Nonproliferation Act of 2000 (INA) was enacted to help stop foreign transfers to Iran of weapons of mass destruction, missile technology, and advanced conventional weapons technology, particularly from Russia. Section 6 of the INA bans U.S. payments to Russia in connection with the International Space Station (ISS) unless the U.S. President determines that Russia is taking steps to prevent such proliferation. The ISS is currently under construction in orbit. According to current plans, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) will become dependent on Russia for certain ISS crew-related services beginning in April 2006 for which NASA must pay. Thus, the INA could significantly affect U.S. utilization of ISS. This report outlines the history of INA, its effect on Russian and Iranian proliferation, its impact on the ISS program, and options for resolving associated issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Manhattan Project, the Apollo Program, and Federal Energy Technology R&D Programs: A Comparative Analysis

The Manhattan Project, the Apollo Program, and Federal Energy Technology R&D Programs: A Comparative Analysis

Date: June 30, 2009
Creator: Stine, Deborah D.
Description: Some policymakers have concluded that the energy challenges facing the United States are so critical that a concentrated investment in energy research and development (R&D) should be undertaken. The Manhattan project, which produced the atomic bomb, and the Apollo program, which landed American men on the moon, have been cited as examples of the success such R&D investments can yield. Investment in federal energy technology R&D programs of the 1970s, in response to two energy crises, have generally been viewed as less successful than the earlier two efforts. This report compares and contrasts the goals of, and the investments in, the three initiatives, which may provide useful insights for Congress as it assesses and debates the nation's energy policy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Civilian Space Policy Priorities: Reflections 50 Years After Sputnik

U.S. Civilian Space Policy Priorities: Reflections 50 Years After Sputnik

Date: June 20, 2008
Creator: Stine, Deborah D.
Description: This report describes Sputnik and its influence on today's U.S. civilian space policy, the actions other nations and commercial organizations are taking in space exploration, and why the nation invests in space exploration and the public's attitude toward it. The report concludes with a discussion of possible options for future U.S. civilian space policy priorities and the implication of those priorities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department