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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Space Launch Vehicles: Government Activities, Commercial Competition, and Satellite Exports
This report various sides of the debate related to domestic launch services, such as satellite export issues, the development of new launch vehicles by the private sector, and whether tax incentives or loan guarantees should be created for companies attempting to develop lower-cost launch vehicles. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824748/
China's Space Program: An Overview
This report discusses the nature and scope of the Chinese space program. The People's Republic of China launched its first astronaut, or "taikonaut," Lt. Col. Yang Liwei, on October 15, 2003 Beijing time (October 16 Eastern Daylight Time). China thus became only the third country, after Russia and the United States, able to launch humans into orbit. Lt. Col. Yang landed on October 16 Beijing time (October 15 EDT) after making 14 orbits (21 hours and 23 minutes). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824572/
Space Stations
This report looks into Congress' continued debate regarding NASA's International Space Station (ISS) program to build a permanently-occupied space station in Earth orbit where astronauts live and conduct research. NASA expects that research performed in the near-zero gravity environment of the space station will result in new discoveries in life sciences, biomedicine, and materials sciences. Current congressional space station debate focuses on the impact of the space shuttle Columbia tragedy on the ISS program; the possibility that portions of the space station may not be built for cost reasons; and whether Russia can fulfill its commitments to ISS. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824646/
The International Space Station and the Space Shuttle
This report discusses the International Space Station (ISS) program, which began in 1993, with Russia joining the United States, Europe, Japan, and Canada. Crews have occupied ISS on a 4-6 month rotating basis since November 2000. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795470/
The International Space Station and the Space Shuttle
This report discusses the International Space Station (ISS) program, which began in 1993, with Russia joining the United States, Europe, Japan, and Canada. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700869/
The International Space Station and the Space Shuttle
This report discusses recent developments and funding for the International Space Station and the Space Shuttle program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700688/
The Future of NASA: Space Policy Issues Facing Congress
This report analyzes questions regarding space policy challenges and gives some possible answers. It also addresses a number of cross-cutting issues, such as NASA's (the National Aeronautics and Space Agency's) interactions with other federal agencies and the growing role of the commercial space industry. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505621/
The Future of NASA: Space Policy Issues Facing Congress
This report analyzes questions regarding space policy challenges and gives some possible answers. It also addresses a number of cross-cutting issues, such as NASA's interactions with other federal agencies and the growing role of the commercial space industry. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501922/
The Future of NASA: Space Policy Issues Facing Congress
This report analyzes questions regarding space policy challenges and gives some possible answers. It also addresses a number of cross-cutting issues, such as NASA's interactions with other federal agencies and the growing role of the commercial space industry. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491417/
Landsat and the Data Continuity Mission
This report discusses the U.S. Landsat Mission, which has collected remotely sensed imagery of the Earth's surface for more than 35 years. The two satellites currently in orbit are operating beyond their designed life and may fail at any time. Most Landsat data is used by federal agencies. Efforts to commercialize Landsat operations have not been successful. This report discusses issues facing Congress regarding funding for new Landsat satellites. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491579/
Landsat and the Data Continuity Mission
This report discusses the U.S. Landsat Mission, which has collected remotely sensed imagery of the Earth's surface for more than 35 years. The two satellites currently in orbit are operating beyond their designed life and may fail at any time. Most Landsat data is used by federal agencies. Efforts to commercialize Landsat operations have not been successful. This report discusses issues facing Congress regarding funding for new Landsat satellites. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491269/
U.S. Civilian Space Policy Priorities: Reflections 50 Years After Sputnik
This report describes Sputnik and its influence on today's U.S. civilian space policy, the actions other nations and commercial organizations are taking in space exploration, and why the nation invests in space exploration and the public's attitude toward it. The report concludes with a discussion of possible options for future U.S. civilian space policy priorities and the implication of those priorities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462908/
Landsat and the Data Continuity Mission
This report discusses the U.S. Landsat Mission, which has collected remotely sensed imagery of the Earth's surface for more than 35 years. The two satellites currently in orbit are operating beyond their designed life and may fail at any time. Most Landsat data is used by federal agencies. Efforts to commercialize Landsat operations have not been successful. This report discusses issues facing Congress regarding funding for new Landsat satellites. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83925/
Landsat and the Data Continuity Mission
This report discusses the U.S. Landsat Mission, which has collected remotely sensed imagery of the Earth's surface for more than 35 years. The two satellites currently in orbit are operating beyond their designed life and may fail at any time. Most Landsat data is used by federal agencies. Efforts to commercialize Landsat operations have not been successful. This report discusses issues facing Congress regarding funding for new Landsat satellites. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31339/
The Manhattan Project, the Apollo Program, and Federal Energy Technology R&D Programs: A Comparative Analysis
Some policymakers have concluded that the energy challenges facing the United States are so critical that a concentrated investment in energy research and development (R&D) should be undertaken. The Manhattan project, which produced the atomic bomb, and the Apollo program, which landed American men on the moon, have been cited as examples of the success such R&D investments can yield. Investment in federal energy technology R&D programs of the 1970s, in response to two energy crises, have generally been viewed as less successful than the earlier two efforts. This report compares and contrasts the goals of, and the investments in, the three initiatives, which may provide useful insights for Congress as it assesses and debates the nation's energy policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26281/
National Aeronautics and Space Administration: Overview, FY2009 Budget, and Issues for Congress
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducts U.S. civilian space and aeronautics activities. For FY2009, the Administration requested $17.614 billion for NASA, and increase of 1.8% from the FY2008 appropriation of $17.309 billion. The President's 2004 Moon/Mars Vision for Space Exploration is the major focus of NASA's activities. Issues for Congress regarding this goal include the development of new vehicles for human spaceflight, plans for the transition to these vehicles after the space shuttle is retired in 2010, and the balance in NASA's priorities between human space exploration and the agency's activities in science and aeronautics. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10728/
China's Space Program: Options for U.S.-China Cooperation
This report outlines recent activities and future plans in China's civilian space sector. It also discusses benefits and trade-offs of possible U.S.-China collaboration in space, as well as several options to improve space relations, including information exchange, policy dialogue, and joint activities. The report also includes discussion of China's controversial January 2007 testing of antisatellite weapons. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10722/
China's Space Program: Options for U.S.-China Cooperation
China has a determined, yet still modest, program of civilian space activities planned for the next decade. The potential for U.S.-China cooperation in space -- an issue of interest to Congress -- has become more controversial since the January 2007 Chinese anti-satellite test. Some argue that Chinese capabilities now threaten U.S. space assets in low earth orbit. Others stress the need to expand dialogue with China. This report outlines recent activities and future plans in China's civilian space sector. It also discusses benefits and trade-offs of possible U.S.-China collaboration in space, as well as several options to improve space relations, including information exchange, policy dialogue, and joint activities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10721/
Hubble Space Telescope: NASA's Plans for a Servicing Mission
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) estimates that without a servicing mission to replace key components, the Hubble Space Telescope will cease scientific operations in 2008. In January 2004, then-NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe announced that the space shuttle would no longer be used to service Hubble. Hubble supporters criticized this as a result of President Bush's new Vision for Space Exploration; said supporters sought to reverse the decision and proceed with a shuttle servicing mission. In October 2006, NASA approved a shuttle mission to service Hubble. That mission is now scheduled for October 8, 2008. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10603/
U.S. Space Programs: Civilian, Military, and Commercial
The future of the U.S. human space flight program is dominating debate about NASA. Pursuant to the "Vision for Space Exploration" announced by President Bush in January 2004, the shuttle program is to be terminated in 2010. The Vision directs NASA to focus its activities on returning humans to the Moon by 2020 and eventually sending them to Mars. How to manage Department of Defense (DOD) space programs to avoid the cost growth and schedule delays that have characterized several recent projects is a key issue facing DOD. The appropriate role of the government in facilitating commercial space businesses is an ongoing debate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10507/
Space Stations
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Space Stations
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Space Launch Vehicles: Government Activities, Commercial Competition, and Satellite Exports
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The Iran Nonproliferation Act and the International Space Station: Issues and Options
The Iran Nonproliferation Act of 2000 (INA) was enacted to help stop foreign transfers to Iran of weapons of mass destruction, missile technology, and advanced conventional weapons technology, particularly from Russia. Section 6 of the INA bans U.S. payments to Russia in connection with the International Space Station (ISS) unless the U.S. President determines that Russia is taking steps to prevent such proliferation. The ISS is currently under construction in orbit. According to current plans, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) will become dependent on Russia for certain ISS crew-related services beginning in April 2006 for which NASA must pay. Thus, the INA could significantly affect U.S. utilization of ISS. This report outlines the history of INA, its effect on Russian and Iranian proliferation, its impact on the ISS program, and options for resolving associated issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10086/
U.S. Military Space Programs: An Overview of Appropriations and Current Issues
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Strategic Defense Initiative: Selected References, 1986-1988
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9249/
Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI): Mission Objectives for Directing the Program
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Space Policy and Funding: Military Uses of Space
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Space Issues
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Selected Articles and Bibliography on the Military Uses of Space
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9177/
Space Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8879/
Antisatellites (Killer Satellites)
This issue brief discusses "killer satellites," the unofficial moniker for antisatellite (ASAT) missiles possessed by the Soviet Union in the 1970s and 1980s, as well as U.S. efforts to develop ASAT systems and simultaneously limit their development and use. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8821/
Space Shuttle
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NASA's Space Shuttle Program: The Columbia Tragedy, the Discovery Mission, and the Future of the Shuttle
This report discusses the Columbia tragedy, the Discovery mission, and issues for Congress regarding the future of the shuttle. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8700/
The International Space Station and the Iran Nonproliferation Act (INA): The Bush Administration's Proposed INA Amendment
The Iran Nonproliferation Act (P.L. 106-178), as originally enacted, prohibited the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) from purchasing Russian goods and services for the U.S.-led International Space Station (ISS) unless the President certified that Russia was not proliferating certain technologies to Iran. On July 12, 2005, the Bush Administration submitted to Congress an amendment to allow NASA to purchase goods and services from Russia to support the ISS. That presented a classic policy dilemma. Without access to Russian spacecraft, the U.S. use of the ISS could be extremely limited. Yet Russian entities were continuing proliferation activities relating to missile proliferation according to the Department of State. This report explains the Bush Administration proposal and resulting congressional action. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8328/
China's Space Program: An Overview
The People’s Republic of China successfully completed its second human spaceflight mission on October 17, 2005. China is only the third country, after Russia and the United States, able to launch people into space. Its first human spaceflight was in 2003 when a single astronaut, or “taikonaut,” made a flight lasting slightly less than a day. The 2005 flight lasted five days, and involved two taikonauts. As the United States embarks upon President Bush’s “Vision for Space Exploration” to return astronauts to the Moon by 2020 and someday send them to Mars, some may view China’s entrance into the human exploration of space as a competitive threat, while others may view China as a potential partner. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8308/
Space Exploration: Overview of President Bush's New Exploration Initiative for NASA, and Key Issues for Congress
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Space Exploration: Overview of President Bush's "Vision for Space Exploration," and Key Issues for Congress
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Space Exploration: Overview of President Bush's "Vision for Space Exploration," and Key Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8193/
Space Exploration: Issues Concerning the "Vision for Space Exploration"
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Space Exploration: Issues Concerning the "Vision for Space Exploration"
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Military Space Programs: Issues Concerning DOD's SBIRS and STSS Programs
This report discusses the Space Tracking and Surveillance System (STSS, formerly SBIRS-Low), managed by the Missile Defense Agency, which performs missile tracking and target discrimination for missile defense objectives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8058/
Space Stations
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Military and Civilian Satellites in Support of Allied Forces in the Persian Gulf War
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Space Exploration: Issues Concerning the "Vision for Space Exploration"
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7990/
The International Space Station and the Iran Nonproliferation Act (INA): The Bush Administration's Proposed INA Amendment
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7988/
Space Stations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7873/
U.S. Space Programs: Civilian, Military, and Commercial
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7871/
The Iran Nonproliferation Act and the International Space Station: Issues and Options
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7747/
NASA's Voyager Spacecraft: A Fact Sheet
This report discusses the Voyager 2, which was launched on August 20, 1977, from Cape Canaveral. Their current mission is to extend the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) exploration of the outermost edge of the solar system and the region where the sun’s influence ends. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7561/
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