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 Country: Iran
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The Iran Nonproliferation Act and the International Space Station:  Issues and Options

The Iran Nonproliferation Act and the International Space Station: Issues and Options

Date: March 2, 2005
Creator: Squassoni, Sharon & Smith, Marcia S
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Iran Nonproliferation Act and the International Space Station: Issues and Options

The Iran Nonproliferation Act and the International Space Station: Issues and Options

Date: March 2, 2005
Creator: Squassoni, Sharon & Smith, Marcia S.
Description: The Iran Nonproliferation Act of 2000 (INA) was enacted to help stop foreign transfers to Iran of weapons of mass destruction, missile technology, and advanced conventional weapons technology, particularly from Russia. Section 6 of the INA bans U.S. payments to Russia in connection with the International Space Station (ISS) unless the U.S. President determines that Russia is taking steps to prevent such proliferation. The ISS is currently under construction in orbit. According to current plans, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) will become dependent on Russia for certain ISS crew-related services beginning in April 2006 for which NASA must pay. Thus, the INA could significantly affect U.S. utilization of ISS. This report outlines the history of INA, its effect on Russian and Iranian proliferation, its impact on the ISS program, and options for resolving associated issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The International Space Station and the Iran Nonproliferation Act (INA): The Bush Administration's Proposed INA Amendment

The International Space Station and the Iran Nonproliferation Act (INA): The Bush Administration's Proposed INA Amendment

Date: November 14, 2005
Creator: Smith, Marcia S & Squassoni, Sharon
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The International Space Station and the Iran Nonproliferation Act (INA): The Bush Administration's Proposed INA Amendment

The International Space Station and the Iran Nonproliferation Act (INA): The Bush Administration's Proposed INA Amendment

Date: December 5, 2005
Creator: Smith, Marcia S. & Squassoni, Sharon
Description: The Iran Nonproliferation Act (P.L. 106-178), as originally enacted, prohibited the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) from purchasing Russian goods and services for the U.S.-led International Space Station (ISS) unless the President certified that Russia was not proliferating certain technologies to Iran. On July 12, 2005, the Bush Administration submitted to Congress an amendment to allow NASA to purchase goods and services from Russia to support the ISS. That presented a classic policy dilemma. Without access to Russian spacecraft, the U.S. use of the ISS could be extremely limited. Yet Russian entities were continuing proliferation activities relating to missile proliferation according to the Department of State. This report explains the Bush Administration proposal and resulting congressional action.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department