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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Nuclear Energy Policy

Nuclear Energy Policy

Date: May 10, 2011
Creator: Holt, Mark
Description: This report discusses nuclear energy issues currently facing Congress, such as federal incentives for new commercial reactors, radioactive waste management policy, research and development priorities, power plant safety and regulation, nuclear weapons proliferation, and security against terrorist attacks.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Closing Yucca Mountain: Litigation Associated with Attempts to Abandon the Planned Nuclear Waste Repository

Closing Yucca Mountain: Litigation Associated with Attempts to Abandon the Planned Nuclear Waste Repository

Date: March 4, 2011
Creator: Garvey, Todd
Description: This report covers steps taken by the Obama Administration, in conjunction with Department of Energy, to terminate the Yucca Mountain project.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Managing Disaster Debris: Overview of Regulatory Requirements, Agency Roles, and Selected Challenges

Managing Disaster Debris: Overview of Regulatory Requirements, Agency Roles, and Selected Challenges

Date: January 13, 2011
Creator: Luther, Linda
Description: Report that addresses the challenges in removing debris resulting from a "major disaster" or "emergency" declared by the President, as well as the role of federal agencies in debris removal.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nuclear Energy Policy

Nuclear Energy Policy

Date: October 21, 2010
Creator: Holt, Mark
Description: This report discusses nuclear energy issues currently facing Congress, such as federal incentives for new commercial reactors, radioactive waste management policy, research and development priorities, power plant safety and regulation, nuclear weapons proliferation, and security against terrorist attacks.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Managing Electronic Waste: Issues with Exporting E-Waste

Managing Electronic Waste: Issues with Exporting E-Waste

Date: September 27, 2010
Creator: Luther, Linda
Description: Electronic waste (e-waste) is a term that is used loosely to refer to obsolete, broken, or irreparable electronic devices like televisions, computer central processing units (CPUs), and computer monitors. There are various issues of concern with regard to e-waste disposal and recycling. This report looks at issues specifically related to its export for recycling. Particularly, it discusses documented impacts to human health and the environment that have been tied to unsafe recycling practices in developing countries, as well as issues that have motivated certain stakeholders to divert e-waste from landfill disposal and, hence, increase recycling. It also provides an overview of various factors necessary to understand why e-waste disposal has become a concern in the United States, and it also discusses waste management requirements in the United States.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nuclear Energy Policy

Nuclear Energy Policy

Date: May 27, 2010
Creator: Holt, Mark
Description: This report discusses nuclear energy issues currently facing Congress, such as federal incentives for new commercial reactors, radioactive waste management policy, research and development priorities, power plant safety and regulation, nuclear weapons proliferation, and security against terrorist attacks.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Managing Disaster Debris: Overview of Regulatory Requirements, Agency Roles, and Selected Challenges

Managing Disaster Debris: Overview of Regulatory Requirements, Agency Roles, and Selected Challenges

Date: March 17, 2010
Creator: Luther, Linda
Description: This report addresses debris resulting from a "major disaster" or "emergency" declared by the President. First, it discusses the types of debris commonly generated during and after a disaster and selected factors that can make "debris removal"2 such a costly, complex operation. Second, it discusses the roles of federal, state, and local agencies after a disaster has been declared--with regard to both funding debris removal and the actual physical process of removal.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Chemical Facility Security: Reauthorization, Policy Issues, and Options for Congress

Chemical Facility Security: Reauthorization, Policy Issues, and Options for Congress

Date: July 13, 2009
Creator: Shea, Dana A.
Description: The statutory authority to regulate chemical facilities for security purposes, granted to the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) by the 109th Congress, expires in October 2009. The 111th Congress is taking action to reauthorize this program, but the manner of its reauthorization remains an issue of congressional deliberation and debate. Key policy issues debated in previous Congresses are likely to be considered during the reauthorization debate. These issues include what facilities should be considered as chemical facilities; the appropriateness and scope of federal preemption of state chemical facility security activities; the availability of information for public comment, potential litigation, and congressional oversight; and the role of inherently safer technologies.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Animal Waste and Hazardous Substances: Current Laws and Legislative Issues

Animal Waste and Hazardous Substances: Current Laws and Legislative Issues

Date: January 21, 2009
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report describes the provisions of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, the Superfund law) and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA), and enforcement actions under these laws that have increasingly been receiving attention. Congressional scrutiny in the form of legislative proposals and two House hearings are discussed. Bills intended to exempt animal manure from the requirements of Superfund and EPCRA were introduced in the 109th Congress. Similar bills were introduced in the 110th Congress (H.R. 1398 and S. 807), but no legislation has been enacted. Issues raised by the legislation are analyzed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Concerns in Agricultural Trade

Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Concerns in Agricultural Trade

Date: December 15, 2008
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S.
Description: This report categorizes, describes, and in some cases quantifies these barriers on a country-by-country basis. Sixty-two major trading partners are covered in the 2008 report.10 Sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures and technical barriers to trade (TBTs) are generally detailed in each country’s profile and, where feasible, their impacts on U.S. exports are quantified by U.S. Trade Representative (USTR).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Water Infrastructure Needs and Investment: Review and Analysis of Key Issues

Water Infrastructure Needs and Investment: Review and Analysis of Key Issues

Date: November 24, 2008
Creator: Copeland, Claudia & Tiemann, Mary
Description: This report identifies a number of issues that have received attention in connection with water infrastructure investment. It begins with a review of federal involvement, describes the debate about needs, and then examines key issues, including what is the nature of the problems to be solved; who will pay, and what is the federal role; and questions about mechanisms for delivering federal support, including state-by-state allotment of federal funds. Congressional and Administration activity on these issues from the 107th to the 110th Congresses also is reviewed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Civilian Nuclear Waste Disposal

Civilian Nuclear Waste Disposal

Date: October 7, 2008
Creator: Holt, Mark
Description: This report looks at the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), Yucca Mountain. Most of the current debate surrounding civilian radioactive waste focuses on highly radioactive spent fuel from nuclear power plants.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Environmental Protection Agency's Brownfields Program: Scope, Authorities, and Implementation

The Environmental Protection Agency's Brownfields Program: Scope, Authorities, and Implementation

Date: October 7, 2008
Creator: Ramseur, Jonathan L.
Description: The federal role in assisting states and communities to clean up brownfield sites -- real property affected by the potential presence of environmental contamination -- has been an ongoing issue for more than a decade. While there appears to be a broad consensus that a federal role in the cleanup and redevelopment of brownfields is desirable, issues regarding the degree of financial assistance and overall program effectiveness have been raised.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Managing Disaster Debris: Overview of Regulatory Requirements, Agency Roles, and Selected Challenges

Managing Disaster Debris: Overview of Regulatory Requirements, Agency Roles, and Selected Challenges

Date: July 15, 2008
Creator: Luther, Linda
Description: This report addresses debris resulting from a “major disaster” or “emergency” declared by the President. First, it discusses the types of debris commonly generated during and after a disaster and selected factors that can make “debris removal” such a costly, complex operation. Second, it discusses the roles of federal, state, and local agencies after a disaster has been declared — with regard to both funding debris removal and the actual physical process of removal.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Exemptions from Environmental Law for the Department of Defense

Exemptions from Environmental Law for the Department of Defense

Date: May 1, 2008
Creator: Bearden, David M.
Description: Whether broader expansions from federal environmental laws are needed to preserve military readiness has been an issue. Questions have been raised as to whether environmental requirements have limited military training activities to the point that readiness would be compromised. The potential impacts of broader exemptions on environmental quality have raised additional questions. Although certain exemptions the Department of Defense (DOD) first requested in FY2003 have been enacted into law, Congress has opposed others. From FY2003 to FY2008, DOD requested exemptions from the Clean Air Act, Solid Waste Disposal Act, and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. To date, Congress has not enacted these three latter exceptions. The Administration's FY2009 defense authorization bill does not include these exemptions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Civilian Nuclear Waste Disposal

Civilian Nuclear Waste Disposal

Date: April 16, 2008
Creator: Holt, Mark
Description: This report discusses the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), which calls for disposal of spent nuclear fuel in a deep geologic repository.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Managing Electronic Waste: An Analysis of State E-Waste Legislation

Managing Electronic Waste: An Analysis of State E-Waste Legislation

Date: September 10, 2007
Creator: Luther, Linda
Description: As more states propose e-waste legislation, potentially regulated stakeholders (particularly electronics manufacturers and retailers) have expressed concern that they will be required to comply with a patchwork of state requirements throughout the United States. This concern has led to an increased call for federal legislation regarding e-waste management. To help policy makers better understand the impact of state e-waste legislation, this report discusses issues that have led to state action, common elements in state-waste laws and proposals, and an overview of each enacted state law.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Managing Electronic Waste: An Analysis of State E-Waste Legislation

Managing Electronic Waste: An Analysis of State E-Waste Legislation

Date: August 29, 2007
Creator: Luther, Linda
Description: In 2005, two congressional hearings were held to explore issues associated with e-waste, and the Congressional E-Waste Working Group was formed. One goal common to both the hearings and the establishment of the working group was to explore potential national solutions to the e-waste management issue. With increased legislative activity in the states, it is anticipated that stakeholders will increase their call for federal legislation regarding e-waste management. To illustrate the issues associated with individual state action, this report discusses the key issues that have led to state action, describes common elements in state waste laws and proposals, and provides an overview of each enacted state law.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Civilian Nuclear Waste Disposal

Civilian Nuclear Waste Disposal

Date: August 8, 2006
Creator: Holt, Mark
Description: Management of civilian radioactive waste has posed difficult issues for Congress since the beginning of the nuclear power industry in the 1950s. Federal policy is based on the premise that nuclear waste can be disposed of safely, but proposed storage and disposal facilities have frequently been challenged on safety, health, and environmental grounds. Although civilian radioactive waste encompasses a wide range of materials, most of the current debate focuses on highly radioactive spent fuel from nuclear power plants. This report outlines issues regarding the management and disposal of civilian radioactive waste, as well as past and ongoing related legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Civilian Nuclear Waste Disposal

Civilian Nuclear Waste Disposal

Date: August 8, 2006
Creator: Holt, Mark
Description: The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) calls for disposal of spent nuclear fuel in a deep geologic repository that is unlikely to be disturbed for thousands of years. Low-level waste sites are a state responsibility under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980. Pursuant to that act, 10 regional compacts for disposal of low level waste have been approved by Congress. Three commercial low-level waste sites are currently operating, in the states of South Carolina, Utah, and Washington.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Civilian Nuclear Waste Disposal

Civilian Nuclear Waste Disposal

Date: August 8, 2006
Creator: Holt, Mark
Description: The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) calls for disposal of spent nuclear fuel in a deep geologic repository that is unlikely to be disturbed for thousands of years. Low-level waste sites are a state responsibility under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980. Pursuant to that act, 10 regional compacts for disposal of low level waste have been approved by Congress. Three commercial low-level waste sites are currently operating, in the states of South Carolina, Utah, and Washington.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nuclear Energy Policy

Nuclear Energy Policy

Date: July 20, 2006
Creator: Holt, Mark
Description: This report discusses the nuclear energy policy issues facing Congress, which include the implementation of federal incentives for new commercial reactors, radioactive waste management policy, research and development priorities, power plant safety and regulation, and security against terrorist attacks.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Radioactive Tank Waste from the Past Production of Nuclear Weapons: Background and Issues for Congress

Radioactive Tank Waste from the Past Production of Nuclear Weapons: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: June 13, 2006
Creator: Andrews, Anthony & Bearden, David M.
Description: How to safely dispose of wastes from producing nuclear weapons has been an ongoing issue. The most radioactive portion of these wastes is stored in underground tanks at Department of Energy (DOE) sites in Idaho, South Carolina, and Washington State. There have been concerns about soil and groundwater contamination from some of the tanks that have leaked. This report provides background information on the disposal of radioactive tank waste, analyzes waste disposal authority in P.L. 108-375, and examines potential implications for environmental cleanup.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Disposal of Chemical Weapons in the Ocean: Background and Issues for Congress

U.S. Disposal of Chemical Weapons in the Ocean: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: May 24, 2006
Creator: Bearden, David M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department