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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Federal Research and Development Organization, Policy, and Funding for Counterterrorism
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7485/
World Solar Summit: Launching the World Renewable Energy Program
The World Solar Summit and proposed World Solar Program 1996-2005 address energy problems through increased use of renewable energy technologies. The World Solar Commission will host the World Solar Summit in Harare, Zimbabwe, on September 16 and 17, 1996, and it will direct the World Solar Program 1996-2005. At the Summit, the Commission is expected to adopt a World Plan ofAction and a number of Strategic Projects. The proposed World Plan of Action includes a selection of high-priority renewable energy projects at the national or regional level to be implemented between 1996 and 2005. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs315/
National Environmental Education Act of 1990: Overview, Implementation, and Reauthorization Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3350/
U.S. National Science Foundation: Major Research Equipment and Facility Construction
The Major Research Equipment and Facilities Construction (MREFC) account of the National Science Foundation (NSF) supports the acquisition and construction of major research facilities and equipment that are to extend the boundaries of science, engineering, and technology. The Administration's FY2013 budget request for the NSF is $7,373.1 million, a 4.8% increase over the FY2012 estimated level of $7,033.1 million. Included in the request total is $196.2 million for MREFC, slightly below the FY2012 estimate of $197.1 million. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84105/
Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education: A Primer
The term "STEM education" refers to teaching and learning in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, including educational activities across all grade levels—from pre-school to post-doctorate—in both formal and informal settings. This report is intended to serve as a primer for outlining existing STEM education policy issues and programs. It includes assessments of the federal STEM education effort and the condition of STEM education in the United States, as well as an analysis of several of the policy issues central to the contemporary federal conversation about STEM education. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122233/
Nanotechnology: A Policy Primer
This report provides an overview of: federal research and development (R&D) in nanotechnology; U.S. competitiveness; environmental, health, and safety (EHS) concerns; nanomanufacturing; and public understanding of and attitudes toward nanotechnology. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103223/
Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2011
This report summarizes the FY2011 budget request for research & development (R&D) funding, including comparisons to R&D funding requests in the FY2010 budget. Congress will play a central role in defining the nation's R&D priorities, especially with respect to two overarching issues: the extent to which the Federal R&D investment can grow in the context of increased pressure on discretionary spending and how available funding will be prioritized and allocated. This report breaks down in detail the various aspects of the President's FY2011 R&D funding request. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93825/
An Analysis of STEM Education Funding at the NSF: Trends and Policy Discussion
This report analyzes National Science Foundation funding trends and selected closely-related STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) education policy issues to provide fiscal and policy context. It concludes with an analysis of potential policy options. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc282339/
Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2011
This report summarizes the FY2011 budget request for research & development (R&D) funding, including comparisons to R&D funding requests in the FY2010 budget. Congress will play a central role in defining the nation's R&D priorities, especially with respect to two overarching issues: the extent to which the Federal R&D investment can grow in the context of increased pressure on discretionary spending and how available funding will be prioritized and allocated. This report breaks down in detail the various aspects of the President's FY2011 R&D funding request. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98953/
Nanotechnology: A Policy Primer
This report provides an overview of nanomanufacturing as well as public understanding of and attitudes toward nanotechnology. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332898/
Science, Technology, and American Diplomacy: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides an overview of current U.S. international S&T policy; describes the role of the Department of State (DOS), the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), and other federal agencies; and discusses possible policy options for Congress. It focuses on international science and technology diplomacy, where American leadership in science and technology is used as a diplomatic tool to enhance another country's development and to improve understanding by other nations of U.S. values and ways of doing business. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94150/
The U.S. Science and Technology Workforce
In the 21st century, global competition and rapid advances in science and technology will challenge the scientific and technical proficiency of the U.S. workforce. This report provides an overview of the status of the U.S. science and technology (S&T) workforce, and identifies some of the issues and options that are currently being discussed in Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26280/
Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2010
This report summarizes the FY2010 budget request for research & development (R&D) funding, including comparisons to R&D funding requests in the FY2009 budget. Congress will play a central role in defining the nation's R&D priorities, especially with respect to two overarching issues: the extent to which the Federal R&D investment can grow in the context of increased pressure on discretionary spending and how available funding will be prioritized and allocated. This report breaks down in detail the various aspects of the President's FY2010 R&D funding request. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26192/
How to Develop and Write a Grant Proposal
This report is intended for Members and staff assisting grant seekers in districts and states and covers writing proposals for both government and private foundations grants. In preparation for writing a proposal, the report first discusses preliminary information gathering and preparation, developing ideas for the proposal, gathering community support, identifying funding resources, and seeking preliminary review of the proposal and support of relevant administrative officials. The second section of the report covers the actual writing of the proposal. The last section of the report provides a listing of free grants-writing websites. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26212/
Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2011
This report summarizes the FY2011 budget request for research & development (R&D) funding, including comparisons to R&D funding requests in the FY2010 budget. Congress will play a central role in defining the nation's R&D priorities, especially with respect to two overarching issues: the extent to which the Federal R&D investment can grow in the context of increased pressure on discretionary spending and how available funding will be prioritized and allocated. This report breaks down in detail the various aspects of the President's FY2011 R&D funding request. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33013/
Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2011 Appropriations
This report provides an overview of actions taken by Congress to provide FY2011 appropriations for Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies (CJS). It also provides an overview of FY2010 appropriations for agencies and bureaus funded under the CJS bill. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33015/
U.S. National Science Foundation: Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR)
The Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR) of the National Science Foundation (NSF) was authorized by Congress in 1978, partly in response to concerns in Congress and the concerns of some in academia and the scientific community about the geographic distribution of federal research and development (R&D) funds. Some have questioned the length of time states should receive EPSCoR support. It continues to be called an experimental program after 28 years, and observers have noted that no state has yet to graduate, or leave the program. This report discusses current policy involving EPSCoR, as well as budget requests. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33036/
Science and Technology Policymaking: A Primer
This report provides a basic understanding of science and technology policy including the nature of S&T policy, how scientific and technical knowledge is useful for public policy decisionmaking, and an overview of the key stakeholders in science and technology policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94143/
U.S. National Science Foundation: Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR)
The Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR) of the National Science Foundation (NSF) was authorized by Congress in 1978, partly in response to concerns in Congress and the concerns of some in academia and the scientific community about the geographic distribution of federal research and development (R&D) funds. Some have questioned the length of time states should receive EPSCoR support. It continues to be called an experimental program after 28 years, and observers have noted that no state has yet to graduate, or leave the program. This report discusses current policy involving EPSCoR, as well as budget requests. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29643/
Public Access to Data from Federally Funded Research: Provisions in OMB Circular A-110
The results of scientific studies are used in making many governmental policy decisions. While the studies are often published, the data on which they are based may not be, even for federally funded research. Before 1999, academic and nonprofit performers of such research were permitted but not required to make their data available to the public through provisions of the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA). In October 1998, a provision in P.L. 105-277 changed that, requiring that such data be made publicly available. This report provides background on the 1999 revisions to federal policy, a discussion of the impacts of those changes, and an analysis of the issues raised by them. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463492/
Science, Technology, and American Diplomacy: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides an overview of current U.S. international S&T policy; describes the role of the Department of State (DOS), the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), and other federal agencies; and discusses possible policy options for Congress. It focuses on international science and technology diplomacy, where American leadership in science and technology is used as a diplomatic tool to enhance another country's development and to improve understanding by other nations of U.S. values and ways of doing business. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463208/
The DHS S&T Directorate: Selected Issues for Congress
This report provides a brief overview of the S&T Directorate's mission, organization, and budgetary structure; a discussion of selected critiques of the S&T Directorate; and an analysis of selected issues facing congressional policymakers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463211/
An Analysis of STEM Education Funding at the NSF: Trends and Policy Discussion
This report analyzes National Science Foundation funding trends and selected closely-related STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) education policy issues to provide fiscal and policy context. It concludes with an analysis of potential policy options. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc461926/
The President's Office of Science and Technology Policy: Issues for Congress
This report provides an overview of the history of science and technology (S&T) advice to the President and discusses selected issues and options for Congress regarding the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) Director, OSTP management and operations, the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), and the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc461933/
How to Develop and Write a Grant Proposal
This report is intended for Members and staff assisting grant seekers in districts and states and covers writing proposals for both government and private foundations grants. In preparation for writing a proposal, the report first discusses preliminary information gathering and preparation, developing ideas for the proposal, gathering community support, identifying funding resources, and seeking preliminary review of the proposal and support of relevant administrative officials. The second section of the report covers the actual writing of the proposal. The last section of the report provides a listing of free grants-writing websites. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462437/
Science and Technology Policymaking: A Primer
This report will provide a basic understanding of science and technology policy including the nature of science and technology (S&T) policy, how scientific and technical knowledge is useful for public policy decision making, and an overview of the key stakeholders in science and technology policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462966/
The U.S. Science and Technology Workforce
This report provides an overview of the status of the U.S. science and technology (S&T) workforce, and identifies some of the issues and options that are currently being discussed in Congress. The report concludes with a summary of some pertinent activities in the 110th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462884/
Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force
The increased presence of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs and in the scientific workforce has been and continues to be of concern to some in the scientific community. Enrollment of U.S. citizens in graduate science and engineering programs has not kept pace with that of foreign students in those programs. In addition to the number of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs, a significant number of university faculty in the scientific disciplines are foreign, and foreign doctorates are employed in large numbers by industry. This report explains this issue in detail, as well as probable causes of said incongruity. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29515/
Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force
The increased presence of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs and in the scientific workforce has been and continues to be of concern to some in the scientific community. Enrollment of U.S. citizens in graduate science and engineering programs has not kept pace with that of foreign students in those programs. In addition to the number of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs, a significant number of university faculty in the scientific disciplines are foreign, and foreign doctorates are employed in large numbers by industry. This report explains this issue in detail, as well as probable causes of said incongruity. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29516/
F-35 Alternate Engine Program: Background and Issues for Congress
On December 2, 2011, General Electric and Rolls-Royce announced that they were ending development of the F136 alternate engine for the F-35, ending what had been a contentious and long-running battle of funding versus research and development. This report discusses issues of having only one engine supplier for the F-35, as well as funding issues for the program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87152/
Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2013
This report summarizes budgetary decisions relating to research and development funding for FY2013. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87223/
National Aeronautics and Space Administration: Overview, FY2009 Budget, and Issues for Congress
This report provides an overview of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), FY 2009 budget, the vision for space exploration, the science program, and NASA aeronautics research. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87389/
Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2014
This report provides government-wide, multi-agency, and individual agency analyses of the President's FY2014 request as it relates to R&D and related activities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272044/
Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2014
This report provides government-wide, multi-agency, and individual agency analyses of the President's FY2014 request as it relates to R&D and related activities. The President's budget seeks $142.773 billion for R&D in FY2014, a 1.3% increase (0.7% CAGR) over the actual FY2012 R&D funding level of $140.912 billion. Adjusted for inflation, the President's FY2014 R&D request represents a decrease of 2.6% from the FY2012 level (1.3% CAGR). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272045/
Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2013
This report summarizes budgetary decisions relating to research and development funding for FY2013. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272026/
Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2012
This report summarizes budgetary decisions relating to research and development funding for FY2012. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87173/
The Technology Innovation Program
This report discusses the elimination of the Technology Innovation Program (TIP) - specifically a renewal of the debate over the role of the federal government in promoting commercial technology development. TIP was established in 2007 at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to replace the Advanced Technology Program (ATP). This effort was designed "to support, promote, and accelerate innovation in the United States through high-risk, high-reward research in areas of critical national need," according to the authorizing legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99131/
Energy and Water Development: FY2011 Appropriations
This report discusses key budgetary issues for FY2011 involving the Energy and Water Development appropriations bill, which provides funding for civil works projects of the Army Corps of Engineers, the Department of the Interior's Bureau of Reclamation, the Department of Energy, and a number of independent agencies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103087/
Environmental, Health, and Safety Tradeoffs: A Discussion of Policymaking Opportunities and Constraints
This report discusses the implications of cost-benefit analysis and risk assessment in the context of congressional and administrative decision-making structures. It identifies constraints on flexible decision-making and some implications of trying to overcome them. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1018/
Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10169/
Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Modernization: Background and Issues for Congress
Report that is written in response to the Coast Guard's budget request for a new polar ice breaker, of which the Coast Guard currently has none in operation. Polar icebreakers perform a variety of missions supporting U.S. interests in polar regions. Issues for Congress include what to do with decommissioned ice breakers, the impact of having no ice breakers, how to budget for new ice breakers, and how future ice breakers should be obtained. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228070/
The Role of Risk Analysis and Risk Management in Environmental Protection
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10096/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Online News and Information Sources
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1862/
Technology Transfer: Use of Federally Funded Research and Development
The federal government spends approximately one-third of its annual research and development budget for intramural R&D to meet mission requirements in over 700 government laboratories (including Federally Funded Research and Development Centers). The technology and expertise generated by this endeavor may have application beyond the immediate goals or intent of federally funded R&D. Congress has established a system to facilitate the transfer of technology to the private sector and to state and local governments. Critics of this policy argue that working with the agencies and laboratories continues to be difficult and time-consuming. Proponents of the current effort assert that while the laboratories are open to interested parties, the industrial community is making little effort to use them. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10317/
Department of Energy Research and Development Budget for FY2001: Description and Analysis
This report focuses on the R&D programs. It divides the programs into four categories: energy resources R&D, science, national security R&D, and environmental management R&D. Those categories, which approximate the way DOE has divided up its programs, are set up to keep similar research activities together.1 This arrangement is somewhat different from the way the R&D budget is approached by the congressional appropriations committees. This report gives a description of the programs within each category including their research objectives and the activities where significant budget changes were requested for FY2001. It then describes the request and congressional actions on the request. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1694/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Online News and Information Sources
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10038/
The Role of Risk Analysis and Risk Management in Environmental Protection
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10047/
Technology Transfer: Use of Federally Funded Research and Development
The federal government spends approximately one-third of its annual research and development budget for intramural R&D to meet mission requirements in over 700 government laboratories (including Federally Funded Research and Development Centers). The technology and expertise generated by this endeavor may have application beyond the immediate goals or intent of federally funded R&D. Congress has established a system to facilitate the transfer of technology to the private sector and to state and local governments. Critics of this policy argue that working with the agencies and laboratories continues to be difficult and time-consuming. Proponents of the current effort assert that while the laboratories are open to interested parties, the industrial community is making little effort to use them. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10316/
Climate Change Technology Initiative (CCTI): Research, Technology, and Related Programs
The Climate Change Technology Initiative (CCTI) was the Clinton Administration's package of R&D (to develop renewable energy sources and more energy efficient technologies), targeted tax credits (to encourage purchase and deployment of more efficient technologies), and voluntary information programs (to help businesses and schools be better informed when making purchasing and operating decisions that involve energy use and emissions). This report describes the R&D, voluntary information programs, and funding aspects of the CCTI. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1398/
Climate Change: Federal Research, Technology, and Related Programs
A major focus of efforts to address possible global climate change has been on energy use, given that carbon dioxide, the major “greenhouse gas,” is added to the atmosphere when fossil fuels are burned. Federal programs to increase energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy resources have a history that goes back well over two decades. While many of these efforts were aimed at reducing U.S. dependence on oil imports and addressing electricity needs, they also are relevant to environmental concerns, including climate change. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1399/