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 Country: United States
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010 (H.R. 5116) and the America COMPETES Act (P.L. 110-69): Selected Policy Issues
This report provides background information on P.L. 110-69 and H.R. 5116 and analyzes four policy issues addressed by both measures: (1) STEM Education, (2) Federal Research Programs and Activities, (3) Broadening Participation, and (4) Funding. It also discusses selected policy concerns identified in the debate about U.S. competitiveness and describes how H.R. 5116 responds to those concerns. It contains a description of federal multi-agency research and development initiatives that are included in H.R. 5116. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501756/
The Advanced Spectroscopic Portal Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides an overview of the Advanced Spectroscopic Portal program's history and outlines issues for Congress as the program moves forward. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689278/
The Obama Administration's Proposal to Establish a National Network for Manufacturing Innovation
Report that discusses the proposed creation of the National Network for Manufacturing Innovation (NNMI), which would help accelerate innovation and support manufacturing technology commercialization. It includes an overview of the topic as well as discussion on the Administration's proposal, preliminary activities, legislative status, and issues for consideration. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227776/
The Obama Administration’s Proposal to Establish a National Network for Manufacturing Innovation
This report discusses the proposed creation of the National Network for Manufacturing Innovation (NNMI), which would help accelerate innovation and support manufacturing technology commercialization. It includes an overview of the topic as well as discussion on the Administration's proposal, preliminary activities, legislative status, and issues for consideration. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99070/
High Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP) and High Power Microwave (HPM) Devices: Threat Assessments
This report discusses the assessment of the Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP), which is an instantaneous, intense energy field that can overload or disrupt at a distance numerous electrical systems and high technology microcircuits. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8769/
Daylight Saving Time
This report discusses Daylight Saving Time (DST), which is a period of the year between spring and fall when clocks in the United States are set one hour ahead of standard time. DST is currently observed in the United States from 2:00 a.m. on the second Sunday in March until 2:00 a.m. on the first Sunday in November. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847507/
Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2011
This report discusses mechanisms used to continue appropriations in the absence of enactment of regular appropriations acts and to complete the annual appropriations process. Completion of appropriations after the beginning of each fiscal year may cause agencies to delay or cancel some planned R&D and equipment acquisition. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491267/
The Advanced Spectroscopic Portal Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides an overview of the advanced spectroscopic portals (ASPs) program's history and outlines issues for Congress as the program moves forward. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491382/
Nanotechnology: A Policy Primer
This report provides an overview of Congressional support for the economic and societal benefits of nanotechnology; discusses three areas of focus - federal research and development (R&D) in nanotechnology, U.S. competitiveness, and environmental, health, and safety (EHS) concerns; and also discusses nanomanufacturing and public understanding of and attitudes toward nanotechnology. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463026/
The President's Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP): Issues for Congress
This report provides an overview of the history of science and technology (S&T) advice to the President. It also discusses selected issues and options for Congress regarding the Office of Science and Technology Policy OSTP's Director, (OSTP) management and operations, the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), and the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462957/
Nanotechnology: A Policy Primer
This report provides an overview of the nanotechnology that is believed by many to offer extraordinary economic and societal benefits and two others: nanomanufacturing and public understanding of and attitudes toward nanotechnology. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501924/
Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2012
This report discusses mechanisms used to continue appropriations in the absence of enactment of regular appropriations acts and to complete the annual appropriations process. Completion of appropriations after the beginning of each fiscal year may cause agencies to delay or cancel some planned R&D and equipment acquisition. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87172/
Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2012
This report discusses mechanisms used to continue appropriations in the absence of enactment of regular appropriations acts and to complete the annual appropriations process. Completion of appropriations after the beginning of each fiscal year may cause agencies to delay or cancel some planned research and development (R&D) projects and equipment acquisition. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99026/
Federal Support for Academic Research
This report discusses how to address the issue of budget reductions while supporting research conducted at colleges and universities, due to the role of academic research on the economy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87184/
Federal Support for Academic Research
Report that discusses how to address the issue of budget reductions while supporting research conducted at colleges and universities, due to the role of academic research on the economy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227724/
Nanotechnology: A Policy Primer
This report provides an overview of the nanotechnology that is believed by many to offer extraordinary economic and societal benefits, which are discussed in more detail in other CRS reports—and two others: nanomanufacturing and public understanding of and attitudes toward nanotechnology. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87344/
Science, Technology, and American Diplomacy: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides an overview of current U.S. international S&T policy. It focuses on international science and technology diplomacy, where American leadership in science and technology is used as a diplomatic tool to enhance another country's development and to improve understanding by other nations of U.S. values and ways of doing business. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700569/
The President's Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP): Issues for Congress
Congress established the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) through the National Science and Technology Policy, Organization, and Priorities Act of 1976. The act states that “The primary function of the OSTP Director is to provide, within the Executive Office of the President [EOP], advice on the scientific, engineering, and technological aspects of issues that require attention at the highest level of Government.” Issues for Congress to consider regarding OSTP are the nomination of the OSTP director by the President; engagement of OSTP with China; the title, rank, and responsibilities of the OSTP director; OSTP policy foci; OSTP funding and staffing; roles and functions of the OSTP and NSTC; and the status and influence of the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87356/
U.S. National Science Foundation: An Overview
Report giving an overview of the National Science Foundation (NSF), which has a primary responsibility to maintain the health and vitality of the U.S. academic science and engineering enterprise. In addition to ensuring the nation's supply of scientific and engineering personnel, the NSF promotes academic basic research and science and engineering education across many disciplines. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87122/
An Analysis of Efforts to Double Federal Funding for Physical Sciences and Engineering Research
This report provides information and analysis on the origins of the doubling effort; selected acts of Congress, other events, and reports; authorizations and appropriations; the effects of the doubling effort on the funding level and character of federal research funding for the physical sciences and engineering disciplines; and related policy issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743376/
U.S. National Science Foundation: An Overview
This report provides an overview of developments and considerations regarding wave, tidal, and in-stream energy generation technology. It summarizes federal involvement in the regulation of this new industry and highlights current issues in the field. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847531/
Science and Technology Policy: Issues for the 109th Congress
Science and technology have a pervasive influence over a wide range of issues confronting the nation. Decisions on how much federal funding to invest in research and development (R&D), and determining what programs have the highest priority, for example, may have implications for homeland security, new high technology industries, government/private sector cooperation in R&D, and myriad other areas. This report indicates the sweep of science and technology in many public policy issues, although it cannot provide a comprehensive examination of every science or technology issue which may be of interest to Congress. This report identifies other CRS reports that treat most of those issues in more depth. It is updated occasionally. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821417/
The President's Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP): Issues for Congress
This report provides an overview of the history of science and technology (S&T) advice to the President. It also discusses selected issues and options for Congress regarding OSTP's Director, OSTP management and operations, the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), and the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc276860/
Science and Technology Issues in the 113th Congress
This report briefly outlines an array of science and technology policy issues that may come before the 113th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272047/
The DHS S&T Directorate: Selected Issues for Congress
This report provides a brief overview of the Science and Technology (S&T) Directorate's mission, organization, and budgetary structure; a discussion of selected critiques of the S&T Directorate; and an analysis of selected issues facing congressional policymakers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc287936/
The President's Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP): Issues for Congress
This report provides an overview of the history of science and technology (S&T) advice to the President and discusses selected issues and options for Congress regarding the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) Director, OSTP management and operations, the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), and the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc282338/
Unapproved Genetically Modified Wheat Discovered in Oregon: Status and Implications
This report discusses the 2013 discovery of unapproved Genetically Engineered (GE) wheat in eastern Oregon and its effect on future policy considerations and regulatory structures in biotechnology. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc461963/
America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010 (H.R. 5116) and the America COMPETES Act (P.L. 110-69): Selected Policy Issues
This report provides background information on P.L. 110-69 and H.R. 5116, includes information about related legislative activity in the 111th Congress, and analyzes four policy issues addressed by these measures: (1) STEM Education, (2) Federal Research Programs and Activities, (3) Broadening Participation, and (4) Funding. It also discusses selected policy concerns identified in the debate about U.S. competitiveness and describes how the House-passed version of H.R. 5116 responds to those concerns. It contains a description of federal multi-agency research and development initiatives that are included in H.R. 5116, as passed by the House. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491076/
The Helium-3 Shortage: Supply, Demand, and Options for Congress
The world is experiencing a shortage of helium-3, a rare isotope of helium with applications in homeland security, national security, medicine, industry, and science. Federal officials have testified that the shortage is acute and, unless alternatives are found, will affect federal investments in homeland security, scientific research, and other areas. This report discusses the nature of the shortage; federal actions undertaken so far to address it; current and potential sources of helium-3 and options for increasing the supply; current and projected uses of helium-3 and options for reducing the demand; and options for allocating the supply if it continues to fall short of demand. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491042/
Publishing Scientific Papers with Potential Security Risks: Issues for Congress
This report describes the underlying controversy, the potential benefits and harms of publishing manuscripts with potential security risks, the actions taken by domestic and international stakeholders, and options that may improve the way research is handled to minimize security concerns. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462688/
The U.S. Science and Engineering Workforce: Recent, Current, and Projected Employment, Wages, and Unemployment
This report uses a modified version of the Standard Occupation Classification (SOC) system to categorize scientists and engineers. The report taxonomy includes six science and engineering (S&E) S&E occupational groups, each composed of closely related detailed occupations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462043/
Science, Technology, and American Diplomacy: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides an overview of current U.S. international S&T policy; describes the role of the Department of State (DOS), the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), and other federal agencies; and discusses possible policy options for Congress. It focuses on international science and technology diplomacy, where American leadership in science and technology is used as a diplomatic tool to enhance another country's development and to improve understanding by other nations of U.S. values and ways of doing business. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462075/
America COMPETES Acts: FY2008-FY2013 Funding Tables
This report discusses major provisions of the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010 that are set to expire in 2013. This report has been updated to reflect FY2013 enacted funding levels--as contained in P.L. 113- 6 (Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2013)--for specified COMPETES related accounts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462416/
Changes in the Purposes and Frequency of Authorizations of Appropriations
This report discusses general principles in how the language concerning the purposes and frequency of authorizations of appropriations has changed over the past century. These general principles are illustrated through case studies on the authorizations of appropriations that were enacted during this period for three agencies: the National Science Foundation, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the Peace Corps. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501981/
Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2012
President Obama has requested $147.911 billion for research and development (R&D) in FY2012, a $772 million (0.5%) increase from the FY2010 actual R&D funding level of $147.139 billion. Congress will play a central role in defining the nation's R&D priorities, especially with respect to two overarching issues: the extent to which the federal R&D investment can grow in the context of increased pressure on discretionary spending and how available funding will be prioritized and allocated. Low or negative growth in the overall R&D investment may require movement of resources across disciplines, programs, or agencies to address priorities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87174/
The Helium-3 Shortage: Supply, Demand, and Options for Congress
The world is experiencing a shortage of helium-3, a rare isotope of helium with applications in homeland security, national security, medicine, industry, and science. Federal officials have testified that the shortage is acute and, unless alternatives are found, will affect federal investments in homeland security, scientific research, and other areas. This report discusses the nature of the shortage; federal actions undertaken so far to address it; current and potential sources of helium-3 and options for increasing the supply; current and projected uses of helium-3 and options for reducing the demand; and options for allocating the supply if it continues to fall short of demand. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31373/
Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force
he increased presence of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs and in the scientific workforce has been and continues to be of concern to some in the scientific community. Enrollment of U.S. citizens in graduate science and engineering programs has not kept pace with that of foreign students in those programs. The scientific community has been divided over proposals to impose stricter immigration limits on people with scientific and technical skills. Attempts to settle upon the balance between the needs for a highly skilled scientific and technical workforce, and the need to protect and ensure job opportunities, salaries, and working conditions of U.S. scientific personnel, will continue to be debated. This report addresses these issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29517/
The DHS S&T Directorate: Selected Issues for Congress
This report provides a brief overview of the Science and Technology (S&T) Directorate's mission, organization, and budgetary structure; a discussion of selected critiques of the S&T Directorate; and an analysis of selected issues facing congressional policymakers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227857/
The U.S. Science and Technology Workforce
This report provides an overview of the status of the U.S. science and technology (S&T) workforce, and identifies some of the issues and options that are currently being discussed in Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689323/
Science, Technology, and American Diplomacy: Background and Issues for Congress
This report focuses on international science and technology diplomacy, where American leadership in science and technology is used as a diplomatic tool to enhance another country's development and to improve understanding by other nations of U.S. values and ways of doing business. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689259/
Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2006
This report discusses federal research and development (R&D) funding. The Bush Administration has requested $132.2 billion in federal research and development (R&D) funding for FY2006. This sum represents a $505 million increase over the FY2005 estimated funding level of $131.7 billion. In real dollars, total federal R&D would decline for the first time since FY1996. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7897/
Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2006
This report discusses federal research and development (R&D) funding. The Bush Administration requested $132.4 billion in R&D funding for FY2006. This sum represents a $400 million increase over the FY2005 estimated funding level of $132 billion. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8678/
Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2005
This report discusses federal research and development (R&D) funding for FY2005. The Bush Administration requested $131.9 billion in R&D funding for FY2005. This was $5.9 billion above the estimated $126 billion that was appropriated for federal R&D in FY2004. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10099/
Federal Research and Development: Budgeting and Priority-Setting Issues, 107th Congress
Federal research and development (R&D) funding priorities reflect presidential policies and national needs. This report discusses past and projected R&D budgets and initiatives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9699/
Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2007
This report discusses federal research and development (R&D) funding. The Bush Administration requested $137.2 billion in R&D funding for FY2007. This sum represents a 2.6% increase over the estimated $133.7 billion that was approved in FY2006. As in the recent past, the FY2007 increase over the FY2006 estimated funding levels is due to significant funding increases in the Department of Defense (DOD) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA’s) space vehicles development program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8959/
Federal Research and Development: Budgeting and Priority-Setting Issues, 109th Congress
This report summarizes current research and development (R&D) priority setting issues — in terms of expenditures; agency, topical, or field-specific priorities; and organizational arrangements to determine priorities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9455/
The President's Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP): Issues for Congress
This report discusses the role of the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), including an overview of the history of science and technology advice to the President, issues and options for Congress regarding (OSTP) Director, OSTP management and operations, the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), and the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). The report also discusses actions taken by the Obama Administration regarding OSTP. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87355/
Science, Technology, and American Diplomacy: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides an overview of current U.S. international S&T policy; describes the role of the Department of State (DOS), the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), and other federal agencies; and discusses possible policy options for Congress. It focuses on international science and technology diplomacy, where American leadership in science and technology is used as a diplomatic tool to enhance another country's development and to improve understanding by other nations of U.S. values and ways of doing business. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87342/
Science, Technology, and American Diplomacy: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides an overview of current U.S. international S&T policy; describes the role of the Department of State (DOS), the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), and other federal agencies; and discusses possible policy options for Congress. It focuses on international science and technology diplomacy, where American leadership in science and technology is used as a diplomatic tool to enhance another country's development and to improve understanding by other nations of U.S. values and ways of doing business. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87343/
Science, Technology, and American Diplomacy: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides an overview of current U.S. international S&T policy; describes the role of the Department of State (DOS), the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), and other federal agencies; and discusses possible policy options for Congress. It focuses on international science and technology diplomacy, where American leadership in science and technology is used as a diplomatic tool to enhance another country's development and to improve understanding by other nations of U.S. values and ways of doing business. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98108/
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