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 Resource Type: Report
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The Helium-3 Shortage: Supply, Demand, and Options for Congress

The Helium-3 Shortage: Supply, Demand, and Options for Congress

Date: December 22, 2010
Creator: Shea, Dana A. & Morgan, Daniel
Description: The world is experiencing a shortage of helium-3, a rare isotope of helium with applications in homeland security, national security, medicine, industry, and science. Federal officials have testified that the shortage is acute and, unless alternatives are found, will affect federal investments in homeland security, scientific research, and other areas. This report discusses the nature of the shortage; federal actions undertaken so far to address it; current and potential sources of helium-3 and options for increasing the supply; current and projected uses of helium-3 and options for reducing the demand; and options for allocating the supply if it continues to fall short of demand.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Publishing Scientific Papers with Potential Security Risks: Issues for Congress

Publishing Scientific Papers with Potential Security Risks: Issues for Congress

Date: March 18, 2013
Creator: Gottron, Frank & Shea, Dana A.
Description: This report describes the underlying controversy, the potential benefits and harms of publishing manuscripts with potential security risks, the actions taken by domestic and international stakeholders, and options that may improve the way research is handled to minimize security concerns.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The U.S. Science and Engineering Workforce: Recent, Current, and Projected Employment, Wages, and Unemployment

The U.S. Science and Engineering Workforce: Recent, Current, and Projected Employment, Wages, and Unemployment

Date: May 6, 2013
Creator: Sargent Jr, John F.
Description: This report uses a modified version of the Standard Occupation Classification (SOC) system to categorize scientists and engineers. The report taxonomy includes six science and engineering (S&E) S&E occupational groups, each composed of closely related detailed occupations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Science, Technology, and American Diplomacy: Background and Issues for Congress

Science, Technology, and American Diplomacy: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: May 22, 2008
Creator: Stine, Deborah D.
Description: This report provides an overview of current U.S. international S&T policy; describes the role of the Department of State (DOS), the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), and other federal agencies; and discusses possible policy options for Congress. It focuses on international science and technology diplomacy, where American leadership in science and technology is used as a diplomatic tool to enhance another country's development and to improve understanding by other nations of U.S. values and ways of doing business.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
America COMPETES Acts: FY2008-FY2013 Funding Tables

America COMPETES Acts: FY2008-FY2013 Funding Tables

Date: April 15, 2013
Creator: Gonzalez, Heather B.
Description: This report discusses major provisions of the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010 that are set to expire in 2013. This report has been updated to reflect FY2013 enacted funding levels--as contained in P.L. 113- 6 (Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2013)--for specified COMPETES related accounts.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Changes in the Purposes and Frequency of Authorizations of Appropriations

Changes in the Purposes and Frequency of Authorizations of Appropriations

Date: January 16, 2015
Creator: Tollestrup, Jessica
Description: This report discusses general principles in how the language concerning the purposes and frequency of authorizations of appropriations has changed over the past century. These general principles are illustrated through case studies on the authorizations of appropriations that were enacted during this period for three agencies: the National Science Foundation, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the Peace Corps.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Background and Legal Issues Related to Stem Cell Research

Background and Legal Issues Related to Stem Cell Research

Date: July 13, 2006
Creator: Shimabukuro, Jon O
Description: In August 2001, President Bush announced that federal funds, with certain restrictions, may be used to conduct research on human embryonic stem cells. Federal research is limited to “the more than 60” existing stem cell lines that were derived (1) with the informed consent of the donors; (2) from excess embryos created solely for reproductive purposes; and (3) without any financial inducements to the donors. No federal funds may be used for the derivation or use of stem cell lines derived from newly destroyed embryos; the creation of any human embryos for research purposes; or cloning of human embryos for any purposes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Background and Legal Issues Related to Stem Cell Research

Background and Legal Issues Related to Stem Cell Research

Date: July 13, 2006
Creator: Shimabukuro, Jon O.
Description: In August 2001, President Bush announced that federal funds, with certain restrictions, may be used to conduct research on human embryonic stem cells. This report explains the limitations on this research, as well as corresponding and related legislation to the issue of embryonic stem cell research, including the Stem Cell Research Enhancement Act of 2005.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Background and Legal Issues Related to Stem Cell Research

Background and Legal Issues Related to Stem Cell Research

Date: June 12, 2002
Creator: Duffy, Diane T
Description: In August 2001, President Bush announced that federal funds, with certain restrictions, may be used to conduct research on human embryonic stem cells. Federal research is limited to “the more than 60” existing stem cell lines that were derived (1) with the informed consent of the donors; (2) from excess embryos created solely for reproductive purposes; and (3) without any financial inducements to the donors. No federal funds may be used for the derivation or use of stem cell lines derived from newly destroyed embryos; the creation of any human embryos for research purposes; or cloning of human embryos for any purposes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Asset Distribution of Taxable Estates: An Analysis

Asset Distribution of Taxable Estates: An Analysis

Date: December 7, 2000
Creator: Maguire, Steven
Description: This report provides data on the distribution of assets in taxable estates that filed returns in 1998. The report also offers a brief overview of the estate and gift tax and "The Death Tax Elimination Act of 2000," which was passed in the 106th Congress and vetoed. This report finds that farm and business assets represent a small share of the total value of taxable estate tax returns filed in 1998. For an overview of estate tax, see CRS Report RL30600, Estate and Gift Taxes: Economic Issues, by Jane G. Gravelle and Steven Maguire. This report will be updated as new data becomes available.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Automobile and Light Truck Fuel Economy: Is CAFE Up to Standards?

Automobile and Light Truck Fuel Economy: Is CAFE Up to Standards?

Date: April 26, 2002
Creator: Bamberger, Robert L
Description: One of the least controversial provisions of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (P.L. 94-163) established corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards for new passenger cars. This report presents a brief background and analysis regarding the price of crude oil that brought into sharp focus the fuel inefficiency of U.S. automobiles. The report also discusses the previous issues and the most recent developments regarding CAFE.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Automobile and Light Truck Fuel Economy: Is CAFE Up to Standards?

Automobile and Light Truck Fuel Economy: Is CAFE Up to Standards?

Date: June 13, 2002
Creator: Bamberger, Robert L
Description: One of the least controversial provisions of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (P.L. 94-163) established corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards for new passenger cars. This report presents a brief background and analysis regarding the price of crude oil that brought into sharp focus the fuel inefficiency of U.S. automobiles. The report also discusses the previous issues and the most recent developments regarding CAFE.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Automobile and Light Truck Fuel Economy: Is CAFE Up to Standards?

Automobile and Light Truck Fuel Economy: Is CAFE Up to Standards?

Date: July 26, 2002
Creator: Bamberger, Robert L
Description: One of the least controversial provisions of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (P.L. 94-163) established corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards for new passenger cars. This report presents a brief background and analysis regarding the price of crude oil that brought into sharp focus the fuel inefficiency of U.S. automobiles. The report also discusses the previous issues and the most recent developments regarding CAFE.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Automobile and Light Truck Fuel Economy: Is CAFE Up to Standards?

Automobile and Light Truck Fuel Economy: Is CAFE Up to Standards?

Date: August 3, 2001
Creator: Bamberger, Robert L
Description: One of the least controversial provisions of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (P.L. 94-163) established corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards for new passenger cars. This report presents a brief background and analysis regarding the price of crude oil that brought into sharp focus the fuel inefficiency of U.S. automobiles. The report also discusses the previous issues and the most recent developments regarding CAFE.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Automobile and Light Truck Fuel Economy: The CAFE Standards

Automobile and Light Truck Fuel Economy: The CAFE Standards

Date: December 23, 2002
Creator: Bamberger, Robert L
Description: One of the least controversial provisions of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (P.L. 94-163) established corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards for new passenger cars. This report presents a brief background and analysis regarding the price of crude oil that brought into sharp focus the fuel inefficiency of U.S. automobiles. The report also discusses the previous issues and the most recent developments regarding CAFE.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Automobile and Light Truck Fuel Economy: The CAFE Standards

Automobile and Light Truck Fuel Economy: The CAFE Standards

Date: December 2, 2002
Creator: Bamberger, Robert L
Description: One of the least controversial provisions of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (P.L. 94-163) established corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards for new passenger cars. This report presents a brief background and analysis regarding the price of crude oil that brought into sharp focus the fuel inefficiency of U.S. automobiles. The report also discusses the previous issues and the most recent developments regarding CAFE.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Automobile and Light Truck Fuel Economy: The CAFE Standards

Automobile and Light Truck Fuel Economy: The CAFE Standards

Date: September 25, 2002
Creator: Bamberger, Robert L
Description: One of the least controversial provisions of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (P.L. 94-163) established corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards for new passenger cars. This report presents a brief background and analysis regarding the price of crude oil that brought into sharp focus the fuel inefficiency of U.S. automobiles. The report also discusses the previous issues and the most recent developments regarding CAFE.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Automobile and Light Truck Fuel Economy: The CAFE Standards

Automobile and Light Truck Fuel Economy: The CAFE Standards

Date: September 22, 2003
Creator: Bamberger, Robert L
Description: On July 31, 2003, the Senate, facing obstacles to passage of its comprehensive energy bill (S. 14), substituted the energy legislation the Senate had passed in the 107th Congress. It is in conference, now as H.R. 6, in the 108th Congress. The Senate bill would require the Secretary of Transportation to issue, not later than 15 months after enactment, “newregulations setting forth increased fuel economy standards” reflecting “maximum feasible fuel economy levels” consistent with factors set out in the original legislation authorizing the corporate average fuel economy [CAFE] standards – the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA, P.L. 94-163).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Automobile and Light Truck Fuel Economy: The CAFE Standards

Automobile and Light Truck Fuel Economy: The CAFE Standards

Date: July 30, 2003
Creator: Bamberger, Robert L
Description: One of the least controversial provisions of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (P.L. 94-163) established corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards for new passenger cars. This report presents a brief background and analysis regarding the price of crude oil that brought into sharp focus the fuel inefficiency of U.S. automobiles. The report also discusses the previous issues and the most recent developments regarding CAFE.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Automobile and Light Truck Fuel Economy: The CAFE Standards

Automobile and Light Truck Fuel Economy: The CAFE Standards

Date: January 30, 2003
Creator: Bamberger, Robert L
Description: One of the least controversial provisions of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (P.L. 94-163) established corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards for new passenger cars. This report presents a brief background and analysis regarding the price of crude oil that brought into sharp focus the fuel inefficiency of U.S. automobiles. The report also discusses the previous issues and the most recent developments regarding CAFE.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Automobile and Light Truck Fuel Economy: The CAFE Standards

Automobile and Light Truck Fuel Economy: The CAFE Standards

Date: April 2, 2003
Creator: Bamberger, Robert L
Description: One of the least controversial provisions of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (P.L. 94-163) established corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards for new passenger cars. This report presents a brief background and analysis regarding the price of crude oil that brought into sharp focus the fuel inefficiency of U.S. automobiles. The report also discusses the previous issues and the most recent developments regarding CAFE.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Automobile and Light Truck Fuel Economy: The CAFE Standards

Automobile and Light Truck Fuel Economy: The CAFE Standards

Date: April 22, 2003
Creator: Bamberger, Robert L
Description: One of the least controversial provisions of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (P.L. 94-163) established corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards for new passenger cars. This report presents a brief background and analysis regarding the price of crude oil that brought into sharp focus the fuel inefficiency of U.S. automobiles. The report also discusses the previous issues and the most recent developments regarding CAFE.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Automobile and Light Truck Fuel Economy: The CAFE Standards

Automobile and Light Truck Fuel Economy: The CAFE Standards

Date: June 19, 2003
Creator: Bamberger, Robert L
Description: One of the least controversial provisions of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (P.L. 94-163) established corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards for new passenger cars. This report presents a brief background and analysis regarding the price of crude oil that brought into sharp focus the fuel inefficiency of U.S. automobiles. The report also discusses the previous issues and the most recent developments regarding CAFE.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Automobile and Light Truck Fuel Economy: The CAFE Standards

Automobile and Light Truck Fuel Economy: The CAFE Standards

Date: March 12, 2003
Creator: Bamberger, Robert L
Description: One of the least controversial provisions of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (P.L. 94-163) established corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards for new passenger cars. This report presents a brief background and analysis regarding the price of crude oil that brought into sharp focus the fuel inefficiency of U.S. automobiles. The report also discusses the previous issues and the most recent developments regarding CAFE.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department