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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFI) Fund: Programs and Policy Issues

Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFI) Fund: Programs and Policy Issues

Date: February 5, 2015
Creator: Lowry, Sean
Description: As communities face a variety of economic challenges, some are looking to local banks and financial institutions for solutions that address the specific development needs of low-income and distressed communities. Community development financial institutions (CDFIs) provide financial products and services, such as mortgage financing for homebuyers and not-for-profit developers; underwriting and risk capital for community facilities; technical assistance; and commercial loans and investments to small, start-up, or expanding businesses. This report begins by describing the CDFI Fund’s history, current appropriations, and each of its programs. A description of the fund’s process of certifying certain financial institutions to be eligible for the fund’s program awards follows. The next section provides an overview of each program’s purpose, use of award proceeds, eligibility criteria, and relevant issues for Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Development of National Urban Growth and Rural Development Policy: Legislative and Executive Actions in 1970 and 1971

Development of National Urban Growth and Rural Development Policy: Legislative and Executive Actions in 1970 and 1971

Date: March 23, 1972
Creator: Congressional Research Service
Description: The 1970 Acts require the executive branch to submit the reports on the further development of urban growth policy, the location of Federal facilities, acceleration of the availability of government services and financial assistance (among other subjects) in support of rural community development. This report should assist in the evaluation of these submissions received from the President and executive departments and agencies. The report's basic purpose is to place individual legislative actions in the larger context of interrelated national urban and rural development objectives set forth by the Congress. The basic content of this report consists of three major components. The first summarizes 1970 legislative developments at both the State and Federal levels of government concerning contributions being made toward the development of a balanced national growth policy for the United States. The second component describes the actions taken by Congressional committees and the Congress in the first session of the 92nd Congress (1971). The final component is a detailed annotated summary of the published literature of urban and rural development made available in 1971.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Farm Labor: The Adverse Effect Wage Rate (AEWR)

Farm Labor: The Adverse Effect Wage Rate (AEWR)

Date: April 14, 2005
Creator: Whittaker, William G
Description: American agricultural employers have long utilized foreign workers on a temporary basis, regarding them as an important labor resource. At the same time, the relatively low wages and adverse working conditions of such workers have caused them to be viewed as a threat to domestic American workers. Some have argued that foreign guest workers compete unfairly with U.S. workers — both in terms of compensation that they are willing to accept and by making it somewhat more difficult for domestic workers to organize and to bargain with management. To mitigate any “adverse effect”for the domestic workforce, a system of wage floors was developed that applies, variously, both to alien and citizen workers: i.e., the adverse effect wage rate (AEWR). This report deals with one element of immigration (i.e., namely the H-2A workers). It introduces the adverse effect wage rate, it examines the concerns out of which it grew, and it explains at least some of the problems that have been encountered in giving it effect.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
An Overview of the Administration's Strengthening America's Communities Initiative

An Overview of the Administration's Strengthening America's Communities Initiative

Date: February 27, 2006
Creator: Boyd, Eugene; Mulock, Bruce K; Smale, Pauline; Cowan, Tadlock; Laney, Garrine P & Foote, Bruce E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
An Overview of the Administration's Strengthening America's Communities Initiative

An Overview of the Administration's Strengthening America's Communities Initiative

Date: January 26, 2006
Creator: Boyd, Eugene; Mulock, Bruce K; Smale, Pauline; Cowan, Tadlock; Laney, Garrine P & Foote, Bruce E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
An Overview of the Administration's Strengthening America's Communities Initiative

An Overview of the Administration's Strengthening America's Communities Initiative

Date: May 5, 2005
Creator: Boyd, Eugene; Mulock, Bruce K; Smale, Pauline; Cowan, Tadlock; Laney, Garrine P & Foote, Bruce E
Description: This report discusses administration’s proposed base program called strengthening America’s communities initiative intended to award funds in support of job creation and economic development.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
An Overview of the Administration's Strengthening America's Communities Initiative

An Overview of the Administration's Strengthening America's Communities Initiative

Date: March 24, 2005
Creator: Boyd, Eugene; Mulock, Bruce K; Smale, Pauline; Cowan, Tadlock; Laney, Garrine P & Foote, Bruce E
Description: This report discusses administration’s proposed base program called strengthening America’s communities initiative intended to award funds in support of job creation and economic development.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
An Overview of USDA Rural Development Programs

An Overview of USDA Rural Development Programs

Date: August 26, 2004
Creator: Cowan, Tadlock
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Pigford Case: USDA Settlement of a Discrimination Suit by Black Farmers

The Pigford Case: USDA Settlement of a Discrimination Suit by Black Farmers

Date: December 6, 2005
Creator: Vina, Stephen R & Cowan, Tadlock
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Pigford Case: USDA Settlement of a Discrimination Suit by Black Farmers

The Pigford Case: USDA Settlement of a Discrimination Suit by Black Farmers

Date: December 6, 2005
Creator: Vina, Stephen R & Cowan, Tadlock
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Rural Education: Legislative Initiatives

Rural Education: Legislative Initiatives

Date: January 28, 2002
Creator: Stedman, James B & Apling, Richard N
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Rural Water Supply and Sewer Systems: Background Information

Rural Water Supply and Sewer Systems: Background Information

Date: January 20, 1999
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Secure Rural Schools and Community Self-Determination Act of 2000: Forest Service Payments to Counties

The Secure Rural Schools and Community Self-Determination Act of 2000: Forest Service Payments to Counties

Date: October 8, 2008
Creator: Gorte, Ross W.
Description: This report describes the issues that Congress has debated relating to The Secure Rural Schools and Community Self-Determination Act of 2000 (P.L. 106-393), which may again arise when the program expires in 2011, and explains the changes enacted for the program.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
State and Urban Area Homeland Security Plans and Exercises: Issues for the 109th Congress

State and Urban Area Homeland Security Plans and Exercises: Issues for the 109th Congress

Date: March 3, 2006
Creator: Reese, Shawn
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Tobacco Price Support: An Overview of the Program

Tobacco Price Support: An Overview of the Program

Date: June 25, 2004
Creator: Womach, Jasper
Description: About 94 percent of U.S. tobacco production is flue-cured and burley (cigarette tobacco types). These crops are particularly important to the agriculture of North Carolina and Kentucky. The federal tobacco price support program is designed to support and stabilize prices for farmers.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
USDA Rural Housing Programs: An Overview

USDA Rural Housing Programs: An Overview

Date: October 29, 2010
Creator: Foote, Bruce E.
Description: This report discusses the the Department of Agriculture's (USDA) ability to make loans to farmers to enable them to construct, improve, repair, or replace dwellings and other farm buildings to provide decent, safe, and sanitary living conditions for themselves or their tenants, lessees, sharecroppers, and laborers. USDA was also authorized to make grants or combinations of loans and grants to those farmers who could not qualify to repay the full amount of a loan, but who needed the funds to make the dwellings sanitary or to remove health hazards to the occupants or the community.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
USDA Rural Housing Programs: An Overview

USDA Rural Housing Programs: An Overview

Date: January 26, 2007
Creator: Foote, Bruce E.
Description: This report discusses the the Department of Agriculture's (USDA) ability to make loans to farmers to enable them to construct, improve, repair, or replace dwellings and other farm buildings to provide decent, safe, and sanitary living conditions for themselves or their tenants, lessees, sharecroppers, and laborers. USDA was also authorized to make grants or combinations of loans and grants to those farmers who could not qualify to repay the full amount of a loan, but who needed the funds to make the dwellings sanitary or to remove health hazards to the occupants or the community.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
USDA Rural Housing Programs: An Overview

USDA Rural Housing Programs: An Overview

Date: July 27, 2007
Creator: Foote, Bruce E.
Description: This report discusses the Department of Agriculture's (USDA) rural housing programs, which include loans for the purchase, repair, or construction of single-family housing; loans and grants to remove health and safety hazards in owner-occupied homes; loans and grants for the construction and purchase of rental housing for farmworkers; loans for the purchase and construction of rental and cooperative housing for the elderly and for rural residents in general; rental assistance payments to make rental housing more affordable; interest subsidies to make homeownership loans more affordable and to enable production of rental housing that is affordable for the target population; and loans for developing building sites upon which rural housing is to be constructed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
USDA Rural Housing Programs: An Overview

USDA Rural Housing Programs: An Overview

Date: May 11, 2006
Creator: Foote, Bruce E.
Description: This report discusses the the Department of Agriculture's (USDA) ability to make loans to farmers to enable them to construct, improve, repair, or replace dwellings and other farm buildings to provide decent, safe, and sanitary living conditions for themselves or their tenants, lessees, sharecroppers, and laborers. USDA was also authorized to make grants or combinations of loans and grants to those farmers who could not qualify to repay the full amount of a loan, but who needed the funds to make the dwellings sanitary or to remove health hazards to the occupants or the community.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Value-Added Agricultural Enterprises in Rural Development Strategies

Value-Added Agricultural Enterprises in Rural Development Strategies

Date: October 8, 2002
Creator: Cowan, Tadlock
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department