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 Resource Type: Report
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The Adverse Effect Wage Rate (AEWR)

The Adverse Effect Wage Rate (AEWR)

Date: April 5, 2004
Creator: Whittaker, William G.
Description: This report introduces the adverse effect wage rate (AEWR) and the concerns out of which it grew, from the perspective of labor policy (not of immigration policy). American agricultural employers have long utilized foreign workers on a temporary basis, regarding them as an important manpower resource. Often employed at low wages and under adverse conditions, such alien workers, some argue, may compete unfairly with U.S. workers. To mitigate any "adverse effect" for the domestic workforce, a system of wage floors was developed that applies, variously, both to alien and citizen workers.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Changing Structure of Agriculture and Rural America: Emerging Opportunities and Challenges

The Changing Structure of Agriculture and Rural America: Emerging Opportunities and Challenges

Date: October 30, 2001
Creator: Cowan, Tadlock
Description: This report provides an overview of Contemporary Rural America. The report discusses the changes that are likely to pose important questions about the direction and coherence of current rural policy. Several significant trends in this evolving structure of agriculture are discussed in this report: (1) a continuation in the trend toward fewer and larger farms; (2) a potential acceleration of that trend as production shifts to more tightly integrated and vertically coordinated production through supply chains; (3) greater environmental pressures on conventional agricultural production practices stemming from urban and suburban interests; and (4) changing food consumption patterns.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Community Development Block Grant Funds in Disaster Relief and Recovery

Community Development Block Grant Funds in Disaster Relief and Recovery

Date: July 12, 2010
Creator: Boyd, Eugene
Description: This report discusses how Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) programs are funded by Congress and what they have been used for in recent years: recovery efforts following terrorist attacks, riots, and natural disasters. The 111th Congress is considering $100 million in CDBG funds to help states and communities undertake disaster recovery activities in presidentially declared disaster areas affected by severe storms and flooding during the period from March 2010 through May 2010. The act limited distribution of these funds to states where the entire state was declared a disaster area (Rhode Island) and to states where at least 20 counties within the state were declared disaster areas (Tennessee, Kentucky, and Nebraska).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Community Development Block Grant Funds in Disaster Relief and Recovery

Community Development Block Grant Funds in Disaster Relief and Recovery

Date: January 28, 2010
Creator: Boyd, Eugene & Gonzales, Oscar R.
Description: This report discusses how Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) programs are funded by Congress and what they have been used for in recent years: recovery efforts following terrorist attacks, riots, and natural disasters.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Community Development Block Grant Funds in Disaster Relief and Recovery

Community Development Block Grant Funds in Disaster Relief and Recovery

Date: October 19, 2005
Creator: Boyd, Eugene
Description: In the aftermath of previous, presidentially-declared disasters, Congress has used the Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) program to help states and local governments finance recovery efforts, whether from natural or man-made disasters. This report will provide a general overview of the CDBG program and its use in disaster relief.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Community Development Block Grant Funds in Disaster Relief and Recovery

Community Development Block Grant Funds in Disaster Relief and Recovery

Date: September 1, 2010
Creator: Boyd, Eugene
Description: This report discusses how Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) programs are funded by Congress and what they have been used for in recent years: recovery efforts following terrorist attacks, riots, and natural disasters. The 111th Congress has approved $100 million in CDBG funds to help states and communities undertake disaster recovery activities in presidentially declared disaster areas affected by severe storms and flooding during the period from March 2010 through May 2010. The act limited distribution of these funds to states where the entire state was declared a disaster area (Rhode Island) and to states where at least 20 counties within the state were declared disaster areas (Tennessee, Kentucky, and Nebraska).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Community Development Block Grant Funds in Disaster Relief and Recovery

Community Development Block Grant Funds in Disaster Relief and Recovery

Date: September 21, 2011
Creator: Boyd, Eugene
Description: This report discusses the CDBG program, which administered by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) is the federal government’s largest and most widely available source of financial assistance to support state and local government-directed neighborhood revitalization, housing rehabilitation, and economic development activities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFI) Fund: Programs and Policy Issues

Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFI) Fund: Programs and Policy Issues

Date: March 13, 2014
Creator: Lowry, Sean
Description: This report begins by describing the Community Development Financial Institutions Fund's history, current appropriations, and each of its programs. The next section analyzes four policy considerations of congressional interest regarding the Fund and the effective use of federal resources to promote economic development. Lastly, this report examines the Fund's programs and management to see if they represent an effective and efficient government effort to promote economic development in low-income and distressed communities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFI) Fund: Programs and Policy Issues

Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFI) Fund: Programs and Policy Issues

Date: December 29, 2014
Creator: Lowry, Sean
Description: This report begins by describing the Community Development Financial Institutions Fund's (Fund's) history, current appropriations, and each of its programs. The next section of the report analyzes four policy considerations of congressional interest, regarding the Fund and the effective use of federal resources to promote economic development. Lastly, this report examines the Fund's programs and management to see if they represent an effective and efficient government effort to promote economic development in low-income and distressed communities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFI) Fund: Programs and Policy Issues

Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFI) Fund: Programs and Policy Issues

Date: October 3, 2012
Creator: Lowry, Sean
Description: This report begins by describing the Community Development Financial Institutions Fund's (Fund's) history, current appropriations, and each of its programs. The next section of the report analyzes four policy considerations of congressional interest, regarding the Fund and the effective use of federal resources to promote economic development. Lastly, this report examines the Fund's programs and management to see if they represent an effective and efficient government effort to promote economic development in low-income and distressed communities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFI) Fund: Programs and Policy Issues

Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFI) Fund: Programs and Policy Issues

Date: February 5, 2015
Creator: Lowry, Sean
Description: As communities face a variety of economic challenges, some are looking to local banks and financial institutions for solutions that address the specific development needs of low-income and distressed communities. Community development financial institutions (CDFIs) provide financial products and services, such as mortgage financing for homebuyers and not-for-profit developers; underwriting and risk capital for community facilities; technical assistance; and commercial loans and investments to small, start-up, or expanding businesses. This report begins by describing the CDFI Fund’s history, current appropriations, and each of its programs. A description of the fund’s process of certifying certain financial institutions to be eligible for the fund’s program awards follows. The next section provides an overview of each program’s purpose, use of award proceeds, eligibility criteria, and relevant issues for Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Development of National Urban Growth and Rural Development Policy: Legislative and Executive Actions in 1970 and 1971

Development of National Urban Growth and Rural Development Policy: Legislative and Executive Actions in 1970 and 1971

Date: March 23, 1972
Creator: Congressional Research Service
Description: The 1970 Acts require the executive branch to submit the reports on the further development of urban growth policy, the location of Federal facilities, acceleration of the availability of government services and financial assistance (among other subjects) in support of rural community development. This report should assist in the evaluation of these submissions received from the President and executive departments and agencies. The report's basic purpose is to place individual legislative actions in the larger context of interrelated national urban and rural development objectives set forth by the Congress. The basic content of this report consists of three major components. The first summarizes 1970 legislative developments at both the State and Federal levels of government concerning contributions being made toward the development of a balanced national growth policy for the United States. The second component describes the actions taken by Congressional committees and the Congress in the first session of the 92nd Congress (1971). The final component is a detailed annotated summary of the published literature of urban and rural development made available in 1971.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Farm Labor: The Adverse Effect Wage Rate (AEWR)

Farm Labor: The Adverse Effect Wage Rate (AEWR)

Date: April 14, 2005
Creator: Whittaker, William G
Description: American agricultural employers have long utilized foreign workers on a temporary basis, regarding them as an important labor resource. At the same time, the relatively low wages and adverse working conditions of such workers have caused them to be viewed as a threat to domestic American workers. Some have argued that foreign guest workers compete unfairly with U.S. workers — both in terms of compensation that they are willing to accept and by making it somewhat more difficult for domestic workers to organize and to bargain with management. To mitigate any “adverse effect”for the domestic workforce, a system of wage floors was developed that applies, variously, both to alien and citizen workers: i.e., the adverse effect wage rate (AEWR). This report deals with one element of immigration (i.e., namely the H-2A workers). It introduces the adverse effect wage rate, it examines the concerns out of which it grew, and it explains at least some of the problems that have been encountered in giving it effect.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
An Overview of the Administration's Strengthening America's Communities Initiative

An Overview of the Administration's Strengthening America's Communities Initiative

Date: February 27, 2006
Creator: Boyd, Eugene; Mulock, Bruce K; Smale, Pauline; Cowan, Tadlock; Laney, Garrine P & Foote, Bruce E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
An Overview of the Administration's Strengthening America's Communities Initiative

An Overview of the Administration's Strengthening America's Communities Initiative

Date: January 26, 2006
Creator: Boyd, Eugene; Mulock, Bruce K; Smale, Pauline; Cowan, Tadlock; Laney, Garrine P & Foote, Bruce E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
An Overview of the Administration's Strengthening America's Communities Initiative

An Overview of the Administration's Strengthening America's Communities Initiative

Date: May 5, 2005
Creator: Boyd, Eugene; Mulock, Bruce K; Smale, Pauline; Cowan, Tadlock; Laney, Garrine P & Foote, Bruce E
Description: This report discusses administration’s proposed base program called strengthening America’s communities initiative intended to award funds in support of job creation and economic development.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
An Overview of the Administration's Strengthening America's Communities Initiative

An Overview of the Administration's Strengthening America's Communities Initiative

Date: March 24, 2005
Creator: Boyd, Eugene; Mulock, Bruce K; Smale, Pauline; Cowan, Tadlock; Laney, Garrine P & Foote, Bruce E
Description: This report discusses administration’s proposed base program called strengthening America’s communities initiative intended to award funds in support of job creation and economic development.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
An Overview of USDA Rural Development Programs

An Overview of USDA Rural Development Programs

Date: August 26, 2004
Creator: Cowan, Tadlock
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Pigford Case: USDA Settlement of a Discrimination Suit by Black Farmers

The Pigford Case: USDA Settlement of a Discrimination Suit by Black Farmers

Date: December 6, 2005
Creator: Vina, Stephen R & Cowan, Tadlock
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Pigford Case: USDA Settlement of a Discrimination Suit by Black Farmers

The Pigford Case: USDA Settlement of a Discrimination Suit by Black Farmers

Date: December 6, 2005
Creator: Vina, Stephen R & Cowan, Tadlock
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Rural Education: Legislative Initiatives

Rural Education: Legislative Initiatives

Date: January 28, 2002
Creator: Stedman, James B & Apling, Richard N
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Rural Water Supply and Sewer Systems: Background Information

Rural Water Supply and Sewer Systems: Background Information

Date: January 20, 1999
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Secure Rural Schools and Community Self-Determination Act of 2000: Forest Service Payments to Counties

The Secure Rural Schools and Community Self-Determination Act of 2000: Forest Service Payments to Counties

Date: October 8, 2008
Creator: Gorte, Ross W.
Description: This report describes the issues that Congress has debated relating to The Secure Rural Schools and Community Self-Determination Act of 2000 (P.L. 106-393), which may again arise when the program expires in 2011, and explains the changes enacted for the program.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
State and Urban Area Homeland Security Plans and Exercises: Issues for the 109th Congress

State and Urban Area Homeland Security Plans and Exercises: Issues for the 109th Congress

Date: March 3, 2006
Creator: Reese, Shawn
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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