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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
American Jihadist Terrorism: Combating a Complex Threat
This report describes homegrown violent jihadists and the plots and attacks that have occurred since 9/11. For this report, "homegrown" and "domestic" are terms that describe terrorist activity or plots perpetrated within the United States or abroad by American citizens, legal permanent residents, or visitors radicalized largely within the United States. The report also discusses the radicalization process and the forces driving violent extremist activity. It analyzes post-9/11 domestic jihadist terrorism and describes law enforcement and intelligence efforts to combat terrorism and the challenges associated with those efforts. It also outlines actions underway to build trust and partnership between community groups and government agencies and the tensions that may occur between law enforcement and engagement activities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc267846/
Islamic Religious Schools,
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5272/
Islamic Religious Schools,
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6299/
Islamic Religious Schools, Madrasas: Background
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Islamic Religious Schools, Madrasas: Background
This report provides an overview of madrasas, their role in the Muslim world, and issues related to their alleged links to terrorism. The report also addresses the findings of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (the “9/11 Commission”) and issues relevant to the second session of the 109th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10148/
Campaign Activity by Churches: Legal Analysis of Houses of Worship Free Speech Restoration Act
Under current law, churches and other IRC § 501(c)(3) tax-exempt organizations are prohibited from engaging in such activity and risk losing their tax-exempt status if they do. While this outcome is rare, it is possible. This report provides an overview of the current tax and campaign finance law relevant to this legislation, a discussion of how each bill would amend current law, and a chart that compares the bills. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8734/
Campaign Activity by Churches: Legal Analysis of Houses of Worship Free Speech Restoration Act, H.R. 235 (108th Congress)
Churches and other Internal Revenue Code (IRC) Section 501(c)(3) tax-exempt organizations can lose their tax-exempt status if they participate in a political campaign. The Houses of Worship Free Speech Restoration Act, H.R. 235 (108th Congress) would permit churches to engage in limited types of political campaign activity, in unlimited amounts, without jeopardizing their tax-exempt status. This report provides an overview of current tax and campaign finance law relevant to this legislation, a discussion of how H.R. 235 (108th Congress) would amend current law, and a comparison of H.R. 235 (108th Congress) to H.R. 2357 (107th Congress). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5271/
Terrorists and Suicide Attacks
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5085/
Legal Analysis of Religious Exemptions for Photo Identification Requirements
This report analyzes the legal issues associated with religious exemptions to photo identification laws. Although no lawsuits appear to have challenged federal laws with photo requirements, state photo identification laws have been challenged for several decades. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700521/
Iran: Ethnic and Religious Minorities
Iran is home to approximately 70.5 million people who are ethnically, religiously, and linguistically diverse. This report discusses these minorities, their treatment under the Islamic regime, and the reactions of international rights groups. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795725/
Muslims in Europe: Integration Policies in Selected Countries
This report examines the integration of Muslims into the United Kingdom, France, Germany, and Spain. It also analyzes policies at the European Union (EU) level that affect Muslim populations. However, key policies relating to integrating Muslims into society — including citizenship laws, education, treatment of religious institutions, and anti-discrimination measures — largely lie with individual governments. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7945/
Faith-Based Organizations and Their Relationship with State and Local Governments: Analysis of Recent Initiatives
This report discusses federal, state, and local government funding for faith-based organizations (FBOs) to provide services to needy citizens. It provides an overview of several selected issues including the effectiveness of FBOs, their accountability for results, and the working relationship that FBOs have at various levels of government. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824739/
Charitable Choice Rules and Faith-Based Organizations
This report discusses the Bush administration's "Charitable Choice" agenda aimed at expanding the ability of faith-based organizations to provide federally funded social services. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847754/
Russia's Religion Law: Assessments and Implications
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The School Prayer Controversy: Pro-Con Arguments
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9581/
The School Prayer Controversy: Pro-Con Arguments
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Religion and the Workplace: Legal Analysis of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 as It Applies to Religion and Religious Organizations
This report reviews the scope of Title VII as it applies to religion and religious organizations and the requirements of the anti-discrimination protections and the accommodations provision. It also analyzes the exemptions available to religious organizations for the non-discrimination rules. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103247/
Prayer and Religion in the Public Schools: What Is, and Is Not, Permitted
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8146/
The Law of Church and State: Public Aid to Sectarian Schools
This report gives a brief overview of the evolution of the Court's interpretation of the Establishment Clause in this area and analyzes the categories of aid that have been addressed by the Court. The report explains which categories have been held to be constitutionally permissible or impermissible, both at the elementary and secondary school level and at the postsecondary level. The report also briefly addresses a set of cases (Arizona Christian School Tuition Organization v. Winn; Garriott v. Winn) currently before the Court regarding the constitutionality of an Arizona statute that permits individuals to claim a tax credit for certain donations to school tuition organizations that use the funds for scholarships to private and, in some instances, religious schools. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491043/
The Constitutionality of the Withdrawal of All Federal Court Jurisdiction Over Questions Involving State-Sponsored Prayer in Public Schools and Public Buildings
This report discusses several court decisions regarding the constitutionality of the withdrawal of all Federal Court Jurisdiction over questions involving state-sponsored prayer in Public Schools and Public Buildings. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8144/
Iraq: Reconciliation and Benchmarks
Iraq's current government, the result of a U.S.-supported election process designed to produce democracy, is instead a sectarian government incapable of reconciliation. The Administration says that the passage of some key laws represents progress on national reconciliation, and is a result of the U.S. "troop surge." Others say that combat among Shiite groups since March 2008, possibly motivated by provincial elections planned for October 2008, shows that force will not stabilize Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10621/
Charitable Choice: Legal and Constitutional Issues
This report provides analysis of a number of factual, civil rights, and constitutional questions that have been raised regarding charitable choice in general. The analysis is generally focused on those provisions enacted as part of the 1996 welfare reform law. More recent charitable choice rules may give rise to the same or similar concerns. Primarily, this report focuses on civil rights concerns that have arisen in the context of charitable choice and First Amendment issues, as well as recent legal developments related to charitable choice. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8340/
Supreme Court: Church-State Cases, 2001-2002 Term
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Supreme Court: Church-State Cases, 2001-2002 Term
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The Law of Church and State: Public Aid to Sectarian Schools
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Legislative Prayer and School Prayer: The Constitutional Difference
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs109/
Supreme Court: Church-State Cases, October 1983 Term
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Legal Analysis of President Reagan's Proposed Constitutional Amendment on School Prayer
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8801/
The Religious Freedom Amendment: H.J. Res. 78, As Reported by the House Judiciary Committee
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs575/
The Law of Church and State: Public Aid to Sectarian Schools
This report gives a brief overview of the evolution of the U.S. Supreme Court's interpretation of the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment in regards to sectarian schools at all levels. It analyzes the categories of aid that have been addressed by the Court and also explains which categories have been held to be constitutionally permissible or impermissible, both at the elementary and secondary school level and at the college level. The report also briefly discusses H.R. 1 of the 111th Congress, economic stimulus legislation that includes provisions that would provide assistance to institutions of higher education for modernization, renovation, and repair of facilities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743536/
The Law of Church and State: Opinions of Judge Samuel Alito
This report provides an overview of opinions addressing issues related to the law of church and state written by Judge Alito while serving on the Third Circuit and Supreme Court precedent relevant to those cases. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8051/
The Law of Church and State: The Proposed Religious Freedom Amendment, H.J. Res. 78
This report summarizes legislative developments on the proposal and briefly analyzes its likely legal effect if added to the Constitution. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs574/
Immigration-Related Provisions of Selected Bills on Religious Persecution
This report analyzes immigration-related provisions of H.R. 2431, the “Freedom from Religious Persecution Act,” as passed by the House on May 14, 1998, and S. 1868, the “International Religious Freedom Act,” as introduced in the Senate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs573/
American Jihadist Terrorism: Combating a Complex Threat
This report describes homegrown violent jihadists and the plots and attacks that have occurred since 9/11. "Homegrown" and "domestic" are terms that describe terrorist activity or plots perpetrated within the United States or abroad by American citizens, legal permanent residents, or visitors radicalized largely within the United States. The report also discusses the radicalization process and the forces driving violent extremist activity. It analyzes post-9/11 domestic jihadist terrorism and describes law enforcement and intelligence efforts to combat terrorism and the challenges associated with those efforts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491228/
Jerusalem: Recent Israeli-Palestinian Tensions and Violence
This report discusses Israeli-Palestinian tension in the wake of the November 20th attack by two Palestinian men that left four Israelis dead in a West Jerusalem Synagogue. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc490996/
American Jihadist Terrorism: Combating a Complex Threat
Between May 2009 and August 2010, arrests were made for 19 "homegrown," jihadist-inspired terrorist plots by American citizens or legal permanent residents of the United States. The apparent spike in such activity after May 2009 suggests that at least some Americans - even if a tiny minority - continue to be susceptible to ideologies supporting a violent form of jihad. This report describes homegrown violent jihadists and the plots and attacks that have occurred since 9/11. This report also provides official definitions for terms such as "homegrown," "jihadist," and "violent jihadist." The report also discusses the radicalization process and the forces driving violent extremist activity. It analyzes post-9/11 domestic jihadist terrorism, describes law enforcement and intelligence efforts to combat terrorism and the challenges associated with those efforts. It also outlines actions underway to build trust and partnership between community groups and government agencies and the tensions that may occur between law enforcement and engagement activities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31371/
American Jihadist Terrorism: Combating a Complex Threat
This report describes homegrown violent jihadists and the plots and attacks that have occurred since 9/11. For this report, "homegrown" and "domestic" are terms that describe terrorist activity or plots perpetrated within the United States or abroad by American citizens, legal permanent residents, or visitors radicalized largely within the United States. The report also discusses the radicalization process and the forces driving violent extremist activity. It analyzes post-9/11 domestic jihadist terrorism and describes law enforcement and intelligence efforts to combat terrorism and the challenges associated with those efforts. It also outlines actions underway to build trust and partnership between community groups and government agencies and the tensions that may occur between law enforcement and engagement activities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83950/
Gonzales vs. Oregon
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7671/
The Law of Church and State: Selected Opinions of Justice O'Connor
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Islamist Extremism in Europe
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7768/
Afghanistan: Connections to Islamic Movements In Central and South Asia and Southern Russia
After several years of relative peace in Central Asia and southern Russia, Islamic extremist movements have become more active in Russia and in Central and South Asia, threatening stability in the region. Although numerous factors might account for the upsurge in activity, several of these movements appear to have connections to the Islamic fundamentalist Taliban regime in Afghanistan. These linkages raise questions about whether the United States, as part of a broader effort to promote peace and stability in the region, should continue to engage the Taliban regime, or strongly confront it. This report will be updated as events warrant. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7705/
Legal Standing Under the First Amendment's Establishment Clause
This report analyzes the constitutional issues associated with standing, specifically related to cases arising under the Establishment Clause. It provides a background on the doctrine of standing, including the U.S. Supreme Court's interpretation of various types of standing, including standing to sue as a citizen, as a taxpayer, and on behalf of another party. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689276/
Islamist Militancy in the Pakistan-Afghanistan Border Region and U.S. Policy
Increasing militant activity in western Pakistan poses three key national security threats: an increased potential for major attacks against the United States itself; a growing threat to Pakistani stability; and a hindrance of U.S. efforts to stabilize Afghanistan. This report addresses this issue at length. It also describes the recent upsurge of militant activity on the Pakistani side of the Pakistan-Afghanistan border, as well as the general political climates of Pakistan and Afghanistan and their relationships with the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26300/
Legal Standing Under the First Amendment's Establishment Clause
This report analyzes the constitutional issues associated with standing (a restraint on the power of federal courts to render decisions), specifically related to cases arising under the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment regarding religion. It provides a background on the doctrine of standing, including the U.S. Supreme Court's interpretation of various types of standing: standing to sue as a citizen, as a taxpayer, and on behalf of another party. It also examines the current standing rules related to the Establishment Clause. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc97978/
Legislative Prayer and School Prayer: The Constitutional Difference
The Supreme Court's decisions holding government-sponsored prayer in the public schools to violate the First Amendment's establishment clause but prayer in legislative assemblies to be constitutional are sometimes lifted up as contradictory. This report summarizes the relevant decisions and identifies the distinctions the Court has drawn between the two situations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26057/
Legal Issues Related to Funding for Religious Schools in P.L. 111-5, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009
This report will provide a brief overview of the prohibition on the use of funds by institutions of higher education, including proposals considered by the House and Senate before the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA, P.L. 111-5) was enacted. It will also analyze the constitutionality of the distribution of federal money to religious schools in the context of common questions raised by these provisions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700829/
Palestinian Education and the Debate Over Textbooks
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School Prayer
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8602/
The Religious Freedom Restoration Act: Its Rise, Fall, and Current Status
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs570/
Religious Persecution Abroad: Congressional Concerns and Actions
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs572/