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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The Islamic Traditions of Wahhabism and Salafiyya

The Islamic Traditions of Wahhabism and Salafiyya

Date: January 17, 2007
Creator: Blanchard, Christopher M.
Description: The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and subsequent discussions of religious extremism have called attention to Islamic puritanical movements known as Wahhabism and Salafiyya. Al Qaeda leaders and their ideological supporters have advocated a violent message that some suggest is an extremist interpretation of this line of puritanical Islam. Other observers have accused Saudi Arabia, the center of Wahhabism, of having disseminated a religion that promotes hatred and violence, targeting the United States and its allies. Saudi officials strenuously deny these allegations. This report provides a background on Wahhabism and its relationship to active terrorist groups; it also summarizes recent charges against Wahhabism and responses, including the findings of the final report of the 9/11 Commission and relevant legislation in the 110th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Constitutionality of Including the Phrase "Under God" in the Pledge of Allegiance

The Constitutionality of Including the Phrase "Under God" in the Pledge of Allegiance

Date: June 18, 2004
Creator: Welborn, Angie A
Description: On October 14, 2003, the Supreme Court granted certiorari in the appeal regarding the California statute, and on June 14, 2004, the Court reversed the Ninth Circuit’s decision finding that Newdow lacked standing to challenge the school district’s policy in federal court. This report summarizes the facts of the case, the opinions that have been rendered, congressional action, and the appeal to the Supreme Court. It will be updated as circumstances warrant.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Chaplain of the House: Selection and Related Procedures

Chaplain of the House: Selection and Related Procedures

Date: August 22, 2003
Creator: Rundquist, Paul S & Beth, Richard S
Description: House procedures to elect an officer during a Congress differ from those followed at the start of a Congress. A resolution to elect a replacement officer to fill a vacancy during a Congress is privileged and debatable under the hour rule. By statute, the Speaker has authority to appoint a temporary replacement officer, and in some cases, temporary appointments have continued in effect for the remainder of a Congress. This report describes the consultative process that ultimately led to Father Coughlin’s temporary appointment, and related parliamentary issues concerning the selection of House officers.
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Islamic Religious Schools,

Islamic Religious Schools,

Date: October 29, 2003
Creator: Armanios, Febe
Description: None
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Islamic Religious Schools,

Islamic Religious Schools,

Date: February 10, 2005
Creator: Blanchard, Christopher M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Islamic Religious Schools, Madrasas: Background

Islamic Religious Schools, Madrasas: Background

Date: January 23, 2007
Creator: Blanchard, Christopher M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Islamic Religious Schools, Madrasas: Background

Islamic Religious Schools, Madrasas: Background

Date: January 10, 2006
Creator: Blanchard, Christopher M
Description: This report provides an overview of madrasas, their role in the Muslim world, and issues related to their alleged links to terrorism. The report also addresses the findings of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (the “9/11 Commission”) and issues relevant to the second session of the 109th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Campaign Activity by Churches: Legal Analysis of Houses of Worship Free Speech Restoration Act

Campaign Activity by Churches: Legal Analysis of Houses of Worship Free Speech Restoration Act

Date: June 14, 2005
Creator: Lunder, Erika & Whitaker, L. Paige
Description: Under current law, churches and other IRC § 501(c)(3) tax-exempt organizations are prohibited from engaging in such activity and risk losing their tax-exempt status if they do. While this outcome is rare, it is possible. This report provides an overview of the current tax and campaign finance law relevant to this legislation, a discussion of how each bill would amend current law, and a chart that compares the bills.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Campaign Activity by Churches: Legal Analysis of Houses of Worship Free Speech Restoration Act, H.R. 235 (108th Congress)

Campaign Activity by Churches: Legal Analysis of Houses of Worship Free Speech Restoration Act, H.R. 235 (108th Congress)

Date: June 16, 2003
Creator: Morris, Marie B & Whitaker, L. Paige
Description: Churches and other Internal Revenue Code (IRC) Section 501(c)(3) tax-exempt organizations can lose their tax-exempt status if they participate in a political campaign. The Houses of Worship Free Speech Restoration Act, H.R. 235 (108th Congress) would permit churches to engage in limited types of political campaign activity, in unlimited amounts, without jeopardizing their tax-exempt status. This report provides an overview of current tax and campaign finance law relevant to this legislation, a discussion of how H.R. 235 (108th Congress) would amend current law, and a comparison of H.R. 235 (108th Congress) to H.R. 2357 (107th Congress).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Terrorists and Suicide Attacks

Terrorists and Suicide Attacks

Date: August 28, 2003
Creator: Cronin, Audrey Kurth
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Legal Analysis of Religious Exemptions for Photo Identification Requirements

Legal Analysis of Religious Exemptions for Photo Identification Requirements

Date: April 13, 2009
Creator: Brougher, Cynthia
Description: This report analyzes the legal issues associated with religious exemptions to photo identification laws. Although no lawsuits appear to have challenged federal laws with photo requirements, state photo identification laws have been challenged for several decades.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran: Ethnic and Religious Minorities

Iran: Ethnic and Religious Minorities

Date: November 25, 2008
Creator: Hassan, Hussein D.
Description: Iran is home to approximately 70.5 million people who are ethnically, religiously, and linguistically diverse. This report discusses these minorities, their treatment under the Islamic regime, and the reactions of international rights groups.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Muslims in Europe: Integration Policies in Selected Countries

Muslims in Europe: Integration Policies in Selected Countries

Date: November 18, 2005
Creator: Gallis, Paul E; Archick, Kristin; Miko, Francis T & Woehrel, Steven
Description: This report examines the integration of Muslims into the United Kingdom, France, Germany, and Spain. It also analyzes policies at the European Union (EU) level that affect Muslim populations. However, key policies relating to integrating Muslims into society — including citizenship laws, education, treatment of religious institutions, and anti-discrimination measures — largely lie with individual governments.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Faith-Based Organizations and Their Relationship with State and Local Governments: Analysis of Recent Initiatives

Faith-Based Organizations and Their Relationship with State and Local Governments: Analysis of Recent Initiatives

Date: January 23, 2003
Creator: Canada, Ben
Description: This report discusses federal, state, and local government funding for faith-based organizations (FBOs) to provide services to needy citizens. It provides an overview of several selected issues including the effectiveness of FBOs, their accountability for results, and the working relationship that FBOs have at various levels of government.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Charitable Choice Rules and Faith-Based Organizations

Charitable Choice Rules and Faith-Based Organizations

Date: January 26, 2006
Creator: Richardson, Joe
Description: This report discusses the Bush administration's "Charitable Choice" agenda aimed at expanding the ability of faith-based organizations to provide federally funded social services.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iraq: Reconciliation and Benchmarks

Iraq: Reconciliation and Benchmarks

Date: May 12, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: Iraq's current government, the result of a U.S.-supported election process designed to produce democracy, is instead a sectarian government incapable of reconciliation. The Administration says that the passage of some key laws represents progress on national reconciliation, and is a result of the U.S. "troop surge." Others say that combat among Shiite groups since March 2008, possibly motivated by provincial elections planned for October 2008, shows that force will not stabilize Iraq.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Charitable Choice: Legal and Constitutional Issues

Charitable Choice: Legal and Constitutional Issues

Date: January 27, 2006
Creator: Welborn, Angie A
Description: This report provides analysis of a number of factual, civil rights, and constitutional questions that have been raised regarding charitable choice in general. The analysis is generally focused on those provisions enacted as part of the 1996 welfare reform law. More recent charitable choice rules may give rise to the same or similar concerns. Primarily, this report focuses on civil rights concerns that have arisen in the context of charitable choice and First Amendment issues, as well as recent legal developments related to charitable choice.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Supreme Court: Church-State Cases, 2001-2002 Term

Supreme Court: Church-State Cases, 2001-2002 Term

Date: July 12, 2002
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Supreme Court: Church-State Cases, 2001-2002 Term

Supreme Court: Church-State Cases, 2001-2002 Term

Date: November 26, 2002
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Law of Church and State: Public Aid to Sectarian Schools

The Law of Church and State: Public Aid to Sectarian Schools

Date: August 1, 2000
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Law of Church and State: Public Aid to Sectarian Schools

The Law of Church and State: Public Aid to Sectarian Schools

Date: February 5, 2009
Creator: Brougher, Cynthia
Description: This report gives a brief overview of the evolution of the U.S. Supreme Court's interpretation of the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment in regards to sectarian schools at all levels. It analyzes the categories of aid that have been addressed by the Court and also explains which categories have been held to be constitutionally permissible or impermissible, both at the elementary and secondary school level and at the college level. The report also briefly discusses H.R. 1 of the 111th Congress, economic stimulus legislation that includes provisions that would provide assistance to institutions of higher education for modernization, renovation, and repair of facilities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Law of Church and State: Opinions of Judge Samuel Alito

The Law of Church and State: Opinions of Judge Samuel Alito

Date: December 12, 2005
Creator: Welborn, Angie A
Description: This report provides an overview of opinions addressing issues related to the law of church and state written by Judge Alito while serving on the Third Circuit and Supreme Court precedent relevant to those cases.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Gonzales vs. Oregon

Gonzales vs. Oregon

Date: October 18, 2005
Creator: Yeh, Brian T
Description: None
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The Law of Church and State: Selected Opinions of Justice O'Connor

The Law of Church and State: Selected Opinions of Justice O'Connor

Date: July 20, 2005
Creator: Welborn, Angie A
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department