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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Iraq: Reconciliation and Benchmarks

Iraq: Reconciliation and Benchmarks

Date: May 12, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: Iraq's current government, the result of a U.S.-supported election process designed to produce democracy, is instead a sectarian government incapable of reconciliation. The Administration says that the passage of some key laws represents progress on national reconciliation, and is a result of the U.S. "troop surge." Others say that combat among Shiite groups since March 2008, possibly motivated by provincial elections planned for October 2008, shows that force will not stabilize Iraq.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iraq: Reconciliation and Benchmarks

Iraq: Reconciliation and Benchmarks

Date: June 5, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: Iraq's current government, the result of a U.S.-supported election process designed to produce democracy, is instead a sectarian government incapable of reconciliation. The Administration says that the passage of some key laws represents progress on national reconciliation, and is a result of the U.S. "troop surge." Others say that combat among Shiite groups since March 2008, possibly motivated by provincial elections planned for October 2008, shows that force will not stabilize Iraq.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Islam: A Primer

Islam: A Primer

Date: February 19, 2003
Creator: Mark, Clyde R
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Islam: Sunnis and Shiites

Islam: Sunnis and Shiites

Date: February 23, 2004
Creator: Armanios, Febe
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Islamic Finance: Overview and Policy Concerns

Islamic Finance: Overview and Policy Concerns

Date: November 30, 2010
Creator: Ilias, Shayerah
Description: This report discusses Islamic finance, which is based on principles of shariah, or "Islamic law." Major financial principles of shariah are a ban on interest, a ban on contractual uncertainty, adherence to risk-sharing and profit-sharing, promotion of ethical investments that enhance society, and asset-backing. While the Islamic finance industry represents a fraction of the global finance market, it has grown at double-digit rates in recent years.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Islamic Finance: Overview and Policy Concerns

Islamic Finance: Overview and Policy Concerns

Date: July 29, 2008
Creator: Ilias, Shayerah
Description: The international market for Islamic finance has grown between 10% to 15% annually in recent years. Islamic finance historically has been concentrated in the Persian Gulf countries, but has expanded globally to both Muslim and non-Muslim countries. There is a small but growing market for Islamic finance in the United States. Through international and domestic regulatory bodies, there has been effort to standardize regulations in Islamic finance across different countries and financial institutions, although challenges remain. Critics of Islamic finance express concerns about possible ties between Islamic finance and political agendas or terrorist financing and the use of Islamic finance to circumvent U.S. economic sanctions. Proponents argue that Islamic finance presents significant new business opportunities and provides alternate methods for capital formation and economic development.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Islamic Finance: Overview and Policy Concerns

Islamic Finance: Overview and Policy Concerns

Date: February 9, 2009
Creator: Ilias, Shayerah
Description: This report discusses Islamic finance, which is based on principles of shariah, or "Islamic law." Major financial principles of shariah are a ban on interest, a ban on contractual uncertainty, adherence to risk-sharing and profit-sharing, promotion of ethical investments that enhance society, and asset-backing. While the Islamic finance industry represents a fraction of the global finance market, it has grown at double-digit rates in recent years.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Islamic Religious Schools,

Islamic Religious Schools,

Date: October 29, 2003
Creator: Armanios, Febe
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Islamic Religious Schools,

Islamic Religious Schools,

Date: February 10, 2005
Creator: Blanchard, Christopher M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Islamic Religious Schools, Madrasas: Background

Islamic Religious Schools, Madrasas: Background

Date: January 23, 2007
Creator: Blanchard, Christopher M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Islamic Religious Schools, Madrasas: Background

Islamic Religious Schools, Madrasas: Background

Date: January 10, 2006
Creator: Blanchard, Christopher M
Description: This report provides an overview of madrasas, their role in the Muslim world, and issues related to their alleged links to terrorism. The report also addresses the findings of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (the “9/11 Commission”) and issues relevant to the second session of the 109th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Islamic Traditions of Wahhabism and Salafiyya

The Islamic Traditions of Wahhabism and Salafiyya

Date: December 22, 2003
Creator: Armanios, Febe
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Islamic Traditions of Wahhabism and Salafiyya

The Islamic Traditions of Wahhabism and Salafiyya

Date: February 10, 2005
Creator: Blanchard, Christopher M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Islamic Traditions of Wahhabism and Salafiyya

The Islamic Traditions of Wahhabism and Salafiyya

Date: January 17, 2007
Creator: Blanchard, Christopher M.
Description: The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and subsequent discussions of religious extremism have called attention to Islamic puritanical movements known as Wahhabism and Salafiyya. Al Qaeda leaders and their ideological supporters have advocated a violent message that some suggest is an extremist interpretation of this line of puritanical Islam. Other observers have accused Saudi Arabia, the center of Wahhabism, of having disseminated a religion that promotes hatred and violence, targeting the United States and its allies. Saudi officials strenuously deny these allegations. This report provides a background on Wahhabism and its relationship to active terrorist groups; it also summarizes recent charges against Wahhabism and responses, including the findings of the final report of the 9/11 Commission and relevant legislation in the 110th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Islamist Extremism in Europe

Islamist Extremism in Europe

Date: July 29, 2005
Creator: Archick, Kristin; Rollins, John & Woehrel, Steven
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Islamist Militancy in the Pakistan-Afghanistan Border Region and U.S. Policy

Islamist Militancy in the Pakistan-Afghanistan Border Region and U.S. Policy

Date: November 21, 2008
Creator: Kronstadt, K. Alan & Katzman, Kenneth
Description: Increasing militant activity in western Pakistan poses three key national security threats: an increased potential for major attacks against the United States itself; a growing threat to Pakistani stability; and a hindrance of U.S. efforts to stabilize Afghanistan. This report addresses this issue at length. It also describes the recent upsurge of militant activity on the Pakistani side of the Pakistan-Afghanistan border, as well as the general political climates of Pakistan and Afghanistan and their relationships with the United States.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Jerusalem: Recent Israeli-Palestinian Tensions and Violence

Jerusalem: Recent Israeli-Palestinian Tensions and Violence

Date: November 20, 2014
Creator: Zanotti, Jim
Description: This report discusses Israeli-Palestinian tension in the wake of the November 20th attack by two Palestinian men that left four Israelis dead in a West Jerusalem Synagogue.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Law of Church and State: Opinions of Judge Samuel Alito

The Law of Church and State: Opinions of Judge Samuel Alito

Date: December 12, 2005
Creator: Welborn, Angie A
Description: This report provides an overview of opinions addressing issues related to the law of church and state written by Judge Alito while serving on the Third Circuit and Supreme Court precedent relevant to those cases.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Law of Church and State: Public Aid to Sectarian Schools

The Law of Church and State: Public Aid to Sectarian Schools

Date: November 29, 2010
Creator: Brougher, Cynthia
Description: This report gives a brief overview of the evolution of the Court's interpretation of the Establishment Clause in this area and analyzes the categories of aid that have been addressed by the Court. The report explains which categories have been held to be constitutionally permissible or impermissible, both at the elementary and secondary school level and at the postsecondary level. The report also briefly addresses a set of cases (Arizona Christian School Tuition Organization v. Winn; Garriott v. Winn) currently before the Court regarding the constitutionality of an Arizona statute that permits individuals to claim a tax credit for certain donations to school tuition organizations that use the funds for scholarships to private and, in some instances, religious schools.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Law of Church and State: Public Aid to Sectarian Schools

The Law of Church and State: Public Aid to Sectarian Schools

Date: August 1, 2000
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Law of Church and State: Public Aid to Sectarian Schools

The Law of Church and State: Public Aid to Sectarian Schools

Date: February 5, 2009
Creator: Brougher, Cynthia
Description: This report gives a brief overview of the evolution of the U.S. Supreme Court's interpretation of the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment in regards to sectarian schools at all levels. It analyzes the categories of aid that have been addressed by the Court and also explains which categories have been held to be constitutionally permissible or impermissible, both at the elementary and secondary school level and at the college level. The report also briefly discusses H.R. 1 of the 111th Congress, economic stimulus legislation that includes provisions that would provide assistance to institutions of higher education for modernization, renovation, and repair of facilities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Law of Church and State: Selected Opinions of Justice O'Connor

The Law of Church and State: Selected Opinions of Justice O'Connor

Date: July 20, 2005
Creator: Welborn, Angie A
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Law of Church and State: The Proposed Religious Freedom Amendment, H.J. Res. 78

The Law of Church and State: The Proposed Religious Freedom Amendment, H.J. Res. 78

Date: April 20, 1998
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: This report summarizes legislative developments on the proposal and briefly analyzes its likely legal effect if added to the Constitution.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Legal Analysis of President Reagan's Proposed Constitutional Amendment on School Prayer

Legal Analysis of President Reagan's Proposed Constitutional Amendment on School Prayer

Date: June 2, 1982
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department