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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Legislative Prayer and School Prayer: The Constitutional Difference
The Supreme Court's decisions holding government-sponsored prayer in the public schools to violate the First Amendment's establishment clause but prayer in legislative assemblies to be constitutional are sometimes lifted up as contradictory. This report summarizes the relevant decisions and identifies the distinctions the Court has drawn between the two situations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26057/
The Constitutionality of the Withdrawal of All Federal Court Jurisdiction Over Questions Involving State-Sponsored Prayer in Public Schools and Public Buildings
This report discusses several court decisions regarding the constitutionality of the withdrawal of all Federal Court Jurisdiction over questions involving state-sponsored prayer in Public Schools and Public Buildings. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8144/
The Law of Church and State: Public Aid to Sectarian Schools
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1280/
The Law of Church and State: The Proposed Religious Freedom Amendment, H.J. Res. 78
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs574/
Legal Analysis of President Reagan's Proposed Constitutional Amendment on School Prayer
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8801/
Legislative Prayer and School Prayer: The Constitutional Difference
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs109/
Prayer and Religion in the Public Schools: What Is, and Is Not, Permitted
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8146/
The Religious Freedom Restoration Act: Its Rise, Fall, and Current Status
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs570/
Supreme Court: Church-State Cases, 2001-2002 Term
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3238/
Supreme Court: Church-State Cases, 2001-2002 Term
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3239/
Supreme Court: Church-State Cases, October 1983 Term
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8862/
The Religious Freedom Amendment: H.J. Res. 78, As Reported by the House Judiciary Committee
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs575/
Hezbollah: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses Lebanon's Hezbollah, a Shiite Islamist militia, political party, social welfare organization, and U.S. State Department-designated terrorist organization. The report discusses recent Hezbollah-related conflicts, Hezbollah's relationship with other Lebanese political parties, and U.S. policy regarding Hezbollah. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31384/
Hezbollah: Background and Issues for Congress
Report that discusses Lebanon's Hezbollah, a Shiite Islamist militia, political party, social welfare organization, and U. S. State Department-designated terrorist organization. The report also discusses recent Hezbollah-related conflicts, Hezbollah's relationship with other Lebanese political parties, and U. S. policy regarding Hezbollah. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227686/
House and Senate Chaplains
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1513/
House and Senate Chaplains
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6944/
House and Senate Chaplains
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4031/
Islamist Extremism in Europe
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7768/
Islam: Sunnis and Shiites
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6025/
Islamic Religious Schools,
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5272/
The Islamic Traditions of Wahhabism and Salafiyya
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5273/
Religious Persecution Abroad: Congressional Concerns and Actions
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs572/
American Jihadist Terrorism: Combating a Complex Threat
This report describes homegrown violent jihadists and the plots and attacks that have occurred since 9/11. It also outlines actions underway to build trust and partnership between community groups and government agencies and the tensions that may occur between law enforcement and engagement activities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc284513/
American Jihadist Terrorism: Combating a Complex Threat
This report describes homegrown violent jihadists and the plots and attacks that have occurred since 9/11. For this report, "homegrown" and "domestic" are terms that describe terrorist activity or plots perpetrated within the United States or abroad by American citizens, legal permanent residents, or visitors radicalized largely within the United States. The report also discusses the radicalization process and the forces driving violent extremist activity. It analyzes post-9/11 domestic jihadist terrorism and describes law enforcement and intelligence efforts to combat terrorism and the challenges associated with those efforts. It also outlines actions underway to build trust and partnership between community groups and government agencies and the tensions that may occur between law enforcement and engagement activities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc267846/
American Jihadist Terrorism: Combating a Complex Threat
This report describes homegrown violent jihadists and the plots and attacks that have occurred since 9/11. For this report, "homegrown" and "domestic" are terms that describe terrorist activity or plots perpetrated within the United States or abroad by American citizens, legal permanent residents, or visitors radicalized largely within the United States. The report also discusses the radicalization process and the forces driving violent extremist activity. It analyzes post-9/11 domestic jihadist terrorism and describes law enforcement and intelligence efforts to combat terrorism and the challenges associated with those efforts. It also outlines actions underway to build trust and partnership between community groups and government agencies and the tensions that may occur between law enforcement and engagement activities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83950/
American Jihadist Terrorism: Combating a Complex Threat
This report describes homegrown violent jihadists and the plots and attacks that have occurred since 9/11. "Homegrown" and "domestic" are terms that describe terrorist activity or plots perpetrated within the United States or abroad by American citizens, legal permanent residents, or visitors radicalized largely within the United States. The report also discusses the radicalization process and the forces driving violent extremist activity. It analyzes post-9/11 domestic jihadist terrorism and describes law enforcement and intelligence efforts to combat terrorism and the challenges associated with those efforts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491228/
American Jihadist Terrorism: Combating a Complex Threat
This report describes homegrown violent jihadists and the plots and attacks that have occurred since 9/11. For this report, "homegrown" describes terrorist activity or plots perpetrated within the United States or abroad by American citizens, legal permanent residents, or visitors radicalized largely within the United States. The term "jihadist" describes radicalized individuals using Islam as an ideological and/or religious justification for their belief in the establishment of a global caliphate, or jurisdiction governed by a Muslim civil and religious leader known as a caliph. The term "violent jihadist" characterizes jihadists who have made the jump to illegally supporting, plotting, or directly engaging in violent terrorist activity. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463258/
American Jihadist Terrorism: Combating a Complex Threat
Between May 2009 and August 2010, arrests were made for 19 "homegrown," jihadist-inspired terrorist plots by American citizens or legal permanent residents of the United States. The apparent spike in such activity after May 2009 suggests that at least some Americans - even if a tiny minority - continue to be susceptible to ideologies supporting a violent form of jihad. This report describes homegrown violent jihadists and the plots and attacks that have occurred since 9/11. This report also provides official definitions for terms such as "homegrown," "jihadist," and "violent jihadist." The report also discusses the radicalization process and the forces driving violent extremist activity. It analyzes post-9/11 domestic jihadist terrorism, describes law enforcement and intelligence efforts to combat terrorism and the challenges associated with those efforts. It also outlines actions underway to build trust and partnership between community groups and government agencies and the tensions that may occur between law enforcement and engagement activities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31371/
Islamic Religious Schools,
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6299/
Islamic Religious Schools, Madrasas: Background
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10148/
Islamic Religious Schools, Madrasas: Background
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10178/
The Islamic Traditions of Wahhabism and Salafiyya
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6300/
The Law of Church and State: Public Aid to Sectarian Schools
This report gives a brief overview of the evolution of the Court's interpretation of the Establishment Clause in this area and analyzes the categories of aid that have been addressed by the Court. The report explains which categories have been held to be constitutionally permissible or impermissible, both at the elementary and secondary school level and at the postsecondary level. The report also briefly addresses a set of cases (Arizona Christian School Tuition Organization v. Winn; Garriott v. Winn) currently before the Court regarding the constitutionality of an Arizona statute that permits individuals to claim a tax credit for certain donations to school tuition organizations that use the funds for scholarships to private and, in some instances, religious schools. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491043/
Legal Analysis of Religious Exemptions for Photo Identification Requirements
Report that analyzes the legal issues associated with religious exemptions to photo identification laws, lawsuits that have challenged state photo requirements, and factors that may be relevant in future decisions that may arise related to federal photo identification requirements and state voter identification requirements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227641/
Legal Standing Under the First Amendment's Establishment Clause
This report analyzes the constitutional issues associated with standing (a restraint on the power of federal courts to render decisions), specifically related to cases arising under the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment regarding religion. It provides a background on the doctrine of standing, including the U.S. Supreme Court's interpretation of various types of standing: standing to sue as a citizen, as a taxpayer, and on behalf of another party. It also examines the current standing rules related to the Establishment Clause. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc97978/
Prayer and Religious Expression in Public Institutions: A Constitutional Analysis
This report provides background information regarding sponsored prayer, which is prohibited under the First Amendment with few exceptions. The report discusses school prayer, legislative prayer, military chaplaincy, and legislative issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332953/
Religion and the Workplace: Legal Analysis of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 as It Applies to Religion and Religious Organizations
This report reviews the scope of Title VII as it applies to religion and religious organizations and the requirements of the anti-discrimination protections and the accommodations provision. It also analyzes the exemptions available to religious organizations for the non-discrimination rules. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103247/
Charitable Choice, Faith-Based Initiatives, and TANF
This report is one in the series of reports that discusses the Charitable Choice Act of 2001 (Title II of the House bill) and its rules, as well as the charitable choice laws, and other areas of this program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9294/
School Prayer
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8602/
Terrorists and Suicide Attacks
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5085/
Immigration-Related Provisions of Selected Bills on Religious Persecution
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs573/
Muslims in Europe: Integration Policies in Selected Countries
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7945/
Islamic Finance: Overview and Policy Concerns
The international market for Islamic finance has grown between 10% to 15% annually in recent years. Islamic finance historically has been concentrated in the Persian Gulf countries, but has expanded globally to both Muslim and non-Muslim countries. There is a small but growing market for Islamic finance in the United States. Through international and domestic regulatory bodies, there has been effort to standardize regulations in Islamic finance across different countries and financial institutions, although challenges remain. Critics of Islamic finance express concerns about possible ties between Islamic finance and political agendas or terrorist financing and the use of Islamic finance to circumvent U.S. economic sanctions. Proponents argue that Islamic finance presents significant new business opportunities and provides alternate methods for capital formation and economic development. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10779/
Islamic Finance: Overview and Policy Concerns
This report discusses Islamic finance, which is based on principles of shariah, or "Islamic law." Major financial principles of shariah are a ban on interest, a ban on contractual uncertainty, adherence to risk-sharing and profit-sharing, promotion of ethical investments that enhance society, and asset-backing. While the Islamic finance industry represents a fraction of the global finance market, it has grown at double-digit rates in recent years. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491402/
Afghanistan: Connections to Islamic Movements In Central and South Asia and Southern Russia
After several years of relative peace in Central Asia and southern Russia, Islamic extremist movements have become more active in Russia and in Central and South Asia, threatening stability in the region. Although numerous factors might account for the upsurge in activity, several of these movements appear to have connections to the Islamic fundamentalist Taliban regime in Afghanistan. These linkages raise questions about whether the United States, as part of a broader effort to promote peace and stability in the region, should continue to engage the Taliban regime, or strongly confront it. This report will be updated as events warrant. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7705/
Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq
Iran is materially assisting and influencing major Shiite Muslim factions in Iraq, most of which have ideological, political, and religious ties to Tehran. Among these factions is that of hardline anti-U.S. cleric Moqtada Al Sadr, whose Mahdi Army militia, according to some observers, serves as a proxy force for Tehran against the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10653/
Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq
With a conventional military and weapons of mass destruction (WMD) threat from Saddam Hussein's regime removed, Iran seeks to ensure that Iraq can never again become a threat to Iran, either with or without U.S. forces present in Iraq. By supporting armed Shiite factions, Iran's influence in Iraq has at times hindered U.S. efforts to stabilize Iraq, and has heightened the U.S. threat perception of Iran generally. However, Iran faces difficult choices in Iraq now that its protege Shiite factions, formerly united, are competing and often fighting each other. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10656/
Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq
Iran is materially assisting all major Shiite Muslim political factions in Iraq, most of which have longstanding ideological, political, and religious ties to Tehran, and their armed militias. The Administration notes growing involvement by Tehran in actively directing training, and arming Shiite militiamen linked, to varying degrees, to hardline cleric Moqtada Al Sadr. Some analysis goes so far as to see a virtual "proxy war" between the United States and Iran inside Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10655/
Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq
Iran is materially assisting and influencing major Shiite Muslim factions in Iraq, most of which have ideological, political, and religious ties to Tehran. The Shiite faction of paramount concern to the Administration is that of Moqtada Al Sadr, whose Mahdi Army militia has periodically battled U.S. and Iraqi government forces, although it is currently relatively quiescent. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10657/
Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq
Iran is materially assisting and attempting to influence, in most cases against the United States, major Shiite Muslim factions in Iraq, most of which have ideological, political, and religious ties to Tehran. The Administration asserts that Tehran is actively directing, training, and arming Shiite militiamen linked, to varying degrees, to hardline anti-U.S. cleric Moqtada Al Sadr. Some analysts see a virtual "proxy war" between the United States and Iran inside Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10654/
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