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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The Law of Church and State: Public Aid to Sectarian Schools

The Law of Church and State: Public Aid to Sectarian Schools

Date: August 1, 2000
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Supreme Court: Church-State Cases, 2001-2002 Term

Supreme Court: Church-State Cases, 2001-2002 Term

Date: July 12, 2002
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Supreme Court: Church-State Cases, 2001-2002 Term

Supreme Court: Church-State Cases, 2001-2002 Term

Date: November 26, 2002
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
House and Senate Chaplains

House and Senate Chaplains

Date: October 9, 2001
Creator: Amer, Mildred
Description: This report discusses the two chaplains, one in the House, the other in the Senate, who are the official clergy of Congress. At the beginning of each Congress, the House chaplain is elected for a 2-year term. The Senate chaplain does not have to be reelected at the beginning of a new Congress. There have been 61 Senate chaplains and 59 House chaplains.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
House and Senate Chaplains

House and Senate Chaplains

Date: May 20, 2005
Creator: Amer, Mildred L
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
House and Senate Chaplains

House and Senate Chaplains

Date: July 18, 2003
Creator: Amer, Mildred L
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Islamist Extremism in Europe

Islamist Extremism in Europe

Date: July 29, 2005
Creator: Archick, Kristin; Rollins, John & Woehrel, Steven
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Islam: Sunnis and Shiites

Islam: Sunnis and Shiites

Date: February 23, 2004
Creator: Armanios, Febe
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Islamic Religious Schools,

Islamic Religious Schools,

Date: October 29, 2003
Creator: Armanios, Febe
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Islamic Traditions of Wahhabism and Salafiyya

The Islamic Traditions of Wahhabism and Salafiyya

Date: December 22, 2003
Creator: Armanios, Febe
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Islamic Religious Schools,

Islamic Religious Schools,

Date: February 10, 2005
Creator: Blanchard, Christopher M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Islamic Religious Schools, Madrasas: Background

Islamic Religious Schools, Madrasas: Background

Date: January 23, 2007
Creator: Blanchard, Christopher M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Islamic Religious Schools, Madrasas: Background

Islamic Religious Schools, Madrasas: Background

Date: January 10, 2006
Creator: Blanchard, Christopher M
Description: This report provides an overview of madrasas, their role in the Muslim world, and issues related to their alleged links to terrorism. The report also addresses the findings of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (the “9/11 Commission”) and issues relevant to the second session of the 109th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Islamic Traditions of Wahhabism and Salafiyya

The Islamic Traditions of Wahhabism and Salafiyya

Date: February 10, 2005
Creator: Blanchard, Christopher M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Law of Church and State: Public Aid to Sectarian Schools

The Law of Church and State: Public Aid to Sectarian Schools

Date: February 5, 2009
Creator: Brougher, Cynthia
Description: This report gives a brief overview of the evolution of the U.S. Supreme Court's interpretation of the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment in regards to sectarian schools at all levels. It analyzes the categories of aid that have been addressed by the Court and also explains which categories have been held to be constitutionally permissible or impermissible, both at the elementary and secondary school level and at the college level. The report also briefly discusses H.R. 1 of the 111th Congress, economic stimulus legislation that includes provisions that would provide assistance to institutions of higher education for modernization, renovation, and repair of facilities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Legal Analysis of Religious Exemptions for Photo Identification Requirements

Legal Analysis of Religious Exemptions for Photo Identification Requirements

Date: April 13, 2009
Creator: Brougher, Cynthia
Description: This report analyzes the legal issues associated with religious exemptions to photo identification laws. Although no lawsuits appear to have challenged federal laws with photo requirements, state photo identification laws have been challenged for several decades.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Legal Issues Related to Funding for Religious Schools in P.L. 111-5, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

Legal Issues Related to Funding for Religious Schools in P.L. 111-5, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

Date: March 5, 2009
Creator: Brougher, Cynthia
Description: This report will provide a brief overview of the prohibition on the use of funds by institutions of higher education, including proposals considered by the House and Senate before the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA, P.L. 111-5) was enacted. It will also analyze the constitutionality of the distribution of federal money to religious schools in the context of common questions raised by these provisions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Legal Standing Under the First Amendment's Establishment Clause

Legal Standing Under the First Amendment's Establishment Clause

Date: September 15, 2009
Creator: Brougher, Cynthia
Description: This report analyzes the constitutional issues associated with standing, specifically related to cases arising under the Establishment Clause. It provides a background on the doctrine of standing, including the U.S. Supreme Court's interpretation of various types of standing, including standing to sue as a citizen, as a taxpayer, and on behalf of another party.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Charitable Choice, Faith-Based Initiatives, and TANF

Charitable Choice, Faith-Based Initiatives, and TANF

Date: August 9, 2004
Creator: Burke, Vee
Description: This report is one in the series of reports that discusses the Charitable Choice Act of 2001 (Title II of the House bill) and its rules, as well as the charitable choice laws, and other areas of this program.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Faith-Based Organizations and Their Relationship with State and Local Governments: Analysis of Recent Initiatives

Faith-Based Organizations and Their Relationship with State and Local Governments: Analysis of Recent Initiatives

Date: January 23, 2003
Creator: Canada, Ben
Description: This report discusses federal, state, and local government funding for faith-based organizations (FBOs) to provide services to needy citizens. It provides an overview of several selected issues including the effectiveness of FBOs, their accountability for results, and the working relationship that FBOs have at various levels of government.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Terrorists and Suicide Attacks

Terrorists and Suicide Attacks

Date: August 28, 2003
Creator: Cronin, Audrey Kurth
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Muslims in Europe: Integration Policies in Selected Countries

Muslims in Europe: Integration Policies in Selected Countries

Date: November 18, 2005
Creator: Gallis, Paul E; Archick, Kristin; Miko, Francis T & Woehrel, Steven
Description: This report examines the integration of Muslims into the United Kingdom, France, Germany, and Spain. It also analyzes policies at the European Union (EU) level that affect Muslim populations. However, key policies relating to integrating Muslims into society — including citizenship laws, education, treatment of religious institutions, and anti-discrimination measures — largely lie with individual governments.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran: Ethnic and Religious Minorities

Iran: Ethnic and Religious Minorities

Date: November 25, 2008
Creator: Hassan, Hussein D.
Description: Iran is home to approximately 70.5 million people who are ethnically, religiously, and linguistically diverse. This report discusses these minorities, their treatment under the Islamic regime, and the reactions of international rights groups.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Islamic Finance: Overview and Policy Concerns

Islamic Finance: Overview and Policy Concerns

Date: July 29, 2008
Creator: Ilias, Shayerah
Description: The international market for Islamic finance has grown between 10% to 15% annually in recent years. Islamic finance historically has been concentrated in the Persian Gulf countries, but has expanded globally to both Muslim and non-Muslim countries. There is a small but growing market for Islamic finance in the United States. Through international and domestic regulatory bodies, there has been effort to standardize regulations in Islamic finance across different countries and financial institutions, although challenges remain. Critics of Islamic finance express concerns about possible ties between Islamic finance and political agendas or terrorist financing and the use of Islamic finance to circumvent U.S. economic sanctions. Proponents argue that Islamic finance presents significant new business opportunities and provides alternate methods for capital formation and economic development.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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