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 Resource Type: Report
 Decade: 2010-2019
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Prayer and Religious Expression in Public Institutions: A Constitutional Analysis

Prayer and Religious Expression in Public Institutions: A Constitutional Analysis

Date: June 23, 2014
Creator: Brougher, Cynthia
Description: This report provides background information regarding sponsored prayer, which is prohibited under the First Amendment with few exceptions. The report discusses school prayer, legislative prayer, military chaplaincy, and legislative issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Legal Analysis of Religious Exemptions for Photo Identification Requirements

Legal Analysis of Religious Exemptions for Photo Identification Requirements

Date: September 5, 2012
Creator: Brougher, Cynthia
Description: Report that analyzes the legal issues associated with religious exemptions to photo identification laws, lawsuits that have challenged state photo requirements, and factors that may be relevant in future decisions that may arise related to federal photo identification requirements and state voter identification requirements.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Islamic Finance: Overview and Policy Concerns

Islamic Finance: Overview and Policy Concerns

Date: November 30, 2010
Creator: Ilias, Shayerah
Description: This report discusses Islamic finance, which is based on principles of shariah, or "Islamic law." Major financial principles of shariah are a ban on interest, a ban on contractual uncertainty, adherence to risk-sharing and profit-sharing, promotion of ethical investments that enhance society, and asset-backing. While the Islamic finance industry represents a fraction of the global finance market, it has grown at double-digit rates in recent years.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Pope Francis and Selected Global Issues: Background for Papal Address to Congress

Pope Francis and Selected Global Issues: Background for Papal Address to Congress

Date: September 8, 2015
Creator: Ribando Seelke, Clare; Reese, Shawn; Straus, Jacob R.; Werner, James D. & Mix, Derek E.
Description: This report provides Members of Congress with background information on Pope Francis and a summary of a few selected global issues of congressional interest that have figured prominently on his agenda. The background section on Pope Francis includes a biographical sketch of his life as Jorge Mario Bergoglio, followed by a brief overview of his papacy thus far. The report then identifies some--but not all--of the global issues of concern to Pope Francis. Those include environmental stewardship, poverty and inequality, peace and diplomacy, and human trafficking.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Pope Francis in Cuba

Pope Francis in Cuba

Date: October 2, 2015
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P.
Description: This report briefly discusses Pope Francis' visit to Cuba from September 19-22, 2015. This was the third papal visit to Cuba, following those by Pope John Paul II in 1998 and Pope Benedict XVI in 2012.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
American Jihadist Terrorism: Combating a Complex Threat

American Jihadist Terrorism: Combating a Complex Threat

Date: February 19, 2014
Creator: Bjelopera, Jerome P.
Description: This report describes homegrown violent jihadists and the plots and attacks that have occurred since 9/11. It also outlines actions underway to build trust and partnership between community groups and government agencies and the tensions that may occur between law enforcement and engagement activities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
American Jihadist Terrorism: Combating a Complex Threat

American Jihadist Terrorism: Combating a Complex Threat

Date: January 23, 2013
Creator: Bjelopera, Jerome P.
Description: This report describes homegrown violent jihadists and the plots and attacks that have occurred since 9/11. For this report, "homegrown" describes terrorist activity or plots perpetrated within the United States or abroad by American citizens, legal permanent residents, or visitors radicalized largely within the United States. The term "jihadist" describes radicalized individuals using Islam as an ideological and/or religious justification for their belief in the establishment of a global caliphate, or jurisdiction governed by a Muslim civil and religious leader known as a caliph. The term "violent jihadist" characterizes jihadists who have made the jump to illegally supporting, plotting, or directly engaging in violent terrorist activity.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
American Jihadist Terrorism: Combating a Complex Threat

American Jihadist Terrorism: Combating a Complex Threat

Date: September 20, 2013
Creator: Bjelopera, Jerome P.
Description: This report describes homegrown violent jihadists and the plots and attacks that have occurred since 9/11. For this report, "homegrown" and "domestic" are terms that describe terrorist activity or plots perpetrated within the United States or abroad by American citizens, legal permanent residents, or visitors radicalized largely within the United States. The report also discusses the radicalization process and the forces driving violent extremist activity. It analyzes post-9/11 domestic jihadist terrorism and describes law enforcement and intelligence efforts to combat terrorism and the challenges associated with those efforts. It also outlines actions underway to build trust and partnership between community groups and government agencies and the tensions that may occur between law enforcement and engagement activities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Religion and the Workplace: Legal Analysis of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 as It Applies to Religion and Religious Organizations

Religion and the Workplace: Legal Analysis of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 as It Applies to Religion and Religious Organizations

Date: January 20, 2011
Creator: Brougher, Cynthia
Description: This report reviews the scope of Title VII as it applies to religion and religious organizations and the requirements of the anti-discrimination protections and the accommodations provision. It also analyzes the exemptions available to religious organizations for the non-discrimination rules.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Law of Church and State: Public Aid to Sectarian Schools

The Law of Church and State: Public Aid to Sectarian Schools

Date: November 29, 2010
Creator: Brougher, Cynthia
Description: This report gives a brief overview of the evolution of the Court's interpretation of the Establishment Clause in this area and analyzes the categories of aid that have been addressed by the Court. The report explains which categories have been held to be constitutionally permissible or impermissible, both at the elementary and secondary school level and at the postsecondary level. The report also briefly addresses a set of cases (Arizona Christian School Tuition Organization v. Winn; Garriott v. Winn) currently before the Court regarding the constitutionality of an Arizona statute that permits individuals to claim a tax credit for certain donations to school tuition organizations that use the funds for scholarships to private and, in some instances, religious schools.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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