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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The Vice Presidency: Evolution of the Modern Office, 1933-2001
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Presidential Travel: Policy and Costs
This report discusses the issues regarding the President, Vice President, and First Lady travels, official and political, or unofficial. Whether a trip is for official or political purposes, the Air Force pays all operational and other costs incurred by the use of the aircraft. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86667/
Former Presidents: Pensions, Office Allowances, and Other Federal Benefits
This report provides a legislative and cultural history of the Former Presidents Act. It details the pension and benefits provided to former U.S. presidents and their costs; Congress has the authority to reduce, increase, or maintain these benefits. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc287935/
Presidential Vetoes, 1789-Present: A Summary Overview
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Presidential Vetoes, 1789-Present: A Summary Overview
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The Intersection Between the Former Presidents Act and the Impeachment Process
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The President's State of the Union Address: Tradition, Function, and Policy Implications
This report explores the President's State of the Union Address, in which the President reports to Congress on the current conditions of the United States and provides policy proposals for the upcoming legislative year. This report also discusses the State of the Union's considerable evolution over time. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31328/
9/11 Commission Recommendations: The Senate Confirmation Process for Presidential Nominees
On July 22, 2004, the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, known as the 9/11 Commission, issued its final report, detailing the events up to and including the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks upon the United States. The 9/11 Commission recommended that the Senate adopt rules requiring hearings and votes to confirm or reject national security nominees within 30 days of their submission at the start of each new presidential administration. Implementing the commission's proposal would involve imposing new restrictions on both the power of committee chairs to control the agenda of their committees and the rights of Senators to delay or block nominations through holds and extended debate. This report discusses in detail this proposal, how it could be implemented, and the potential effects of its implementation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10108/
President Clinton's Vetoes
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The Pocket Veto: Its Current Status
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Electoral Votes by State: Changes Resulting from the 1980 Census
This report presents a chart and a U.S. map describing the electoral votes by state and the changes resulted from the 1980 census. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8600/
The Presidential Inauguration of 2005: Basic Facts and Information on Inaugural Festivities
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Former Presidents: Federal Pension and Retirement Benefits
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Proposals to Reform Our Presidential Electoral System: A Survey of the Historical Background and Development of the Electoral College, and a Compilation of Proposals to Reform It, With Pro and Con Analyses
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Former Presidents: Pensions, Facilities, and Services
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The President's State of the Union Message: Frequently Asked Questions
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The Electoral College: Reform Proposals in the 108th Congress
American voters elect the President and Vice President of the United States under a complex arrangement of constitutional provisions, federal and state laws, and political party practices known as the electoral college system. Despite occasional close elections, this system has delivered uncontested results in 46 of 50 elections since adoption of the 12th Amendment, effective in 1804. Throughout this period, nevertheless, it has been the subject of persistent criticism and many reform proposals. Related measures fall into two basic categories: those that would eliminate the electoral college and substitute direct popular election of the President and Vice President, and those that would retain the existing system in some form and correct perceived defects. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9300/
Recess Appointments: Frequently Asked Questions
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A Presidential Item Veto
During a news conference on November 4, 2004, President George W. Bush stated that he “would like to see the President have a line-item veto again, one that passed constitutional muster. I think it would help the executive branch work with the legislative branch to make sure that we’re able to maintain budget discipline.” The Supreme Court struck down an earlier version of item-veto authority (the Line Item Veto Act of 1996) in Clinton v. City of New York, 524 U.S. 417 (1998), but several statutory alternatives are available. Options to the Line Item Veto Act have been proposed over the years, including an amendment to the Constitution to grant the President item-veto authority. The line-item veto is listed among several budget reform proposals included in the FY2005 budget, but a more specific recommendation is expected to be developed by the Administration and submitted to Congress at the start of the 109th Congress. This report analyzes the statutory and constitutional alternatives that are likely to be considered and will be updated as necessary. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7400/
Recess Appointments: A Legal Overview
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Presidential and Vice Presidential Succession: Overview and Current Legislation
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Recess Appointments: A Legal Overview
This report provides an overview of the Recess Appointments Clause, exploring its historical application and legal interpretation by the executive branch, the courts, and the Comptroller General. Furthermore, congressional legislation designed to prevent the President's overuse or misuse of the Clause is also explored. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40201/
The President's State of the Union Address: Tradition, Function, and Policy Implications
This report discusses the State of the Union address, which is a communication between the President and Congress in which the chief executive reports on the current conditions of the United States and provides policy proposals for the upcoming legislative year. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc276875/
Gifts to the President of the United States
Report that addresses provisions of federal law and regulation restricting the acceptance of personal gifts by the President of the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227779/
Votes Other than Favorably on Judicial Nominations, 1939-2003
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Presidential Directives: Background and Overview
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Presidential and Vice Presidential Succession: Overview and Current Legislation
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Cloture Attempts on Nominations
Cloture is the only means by which the Senate can vote to limit debate on a matter, and thereby overcome a possible filibuster. It would be erroneous, however, to assume that cases in which cloture is sought are the same as those in which a filibuster occurs. Cloture may be sought when no filibuster is taking place, and filibusters may occur without cloture being sought. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6157/
Presidential Succession: An Overview with Analysis of Legislation Proposed in the 109th Congress
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Social Security: Report of the President's Commission to Strengthen Social Security
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President Bush's 2002 State Visits in Asia: Implications
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Contemporary Developments in Presidential Elections
This report considers contemporary developments in presidential elections. It emphasizes three topics chosen for their recurring importance and notable recent developments: (1) nominating procedures; (2) campaign finance; and (3) the electoral college. The report highlights significant developments in these areas, particularly for the 2008 and 2012 elections. It also provides background information about the presidential election process in general. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84016/
Presidential Claims of Executive Privilege: History, Law, Practice, and Recent Developments
This report discusses the background of claims of executive privilege, ending with a look into how President Obama has used them. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122238/
Cloture Attempts on Nominations
This report discusses topics regarding cloture as a means to limit debate and overcome a possible filibuster. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103181/
Regular Vetoes and Pocket Vetoes: An Overview
This report provides an overview of the President's veto power, including regular vetoes and pocket vetoes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332861/
Regular Vetoes and Pocket Vetoes: An Overview
This report provides an overview of the President's veto power, including regular vetoes and pocket vetoes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29741/
The U.S. Secret Service: An Examination and Analysis of Its Evolving Missions
The U.S. Secret Service has two missions: criminal investigations and protection. This report looks at the history of the organization and purpose as it relates to Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc85477/
The U.S. Secret Service: History and Missions
This report discusses potential policy questions concerning the U.S. Secret Service through an examination of the Service's history and its statutory authorities, mission, and present activities within Department of Homeland Security (DHS). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306565/
The U.S. Secret Service: History and Missions
This report discusses potential policy questions concerning the U.S. Secret Service through an examination of the Service's history and its statutory authorities, mission, and present activities within Department of Homeland Security (DHS). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332961/
Recess Appointments: Frequently Asked Questions
This report supplies brief answers to some frequently-asked questions regarding recess appointments. These are appointments to high-level policy-making positions in federal departments which are generally confirmed by the Senate. When the Senate is in recess, the President may make a temporary appointment, called a recess appointment, to any such position without Senate approval. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272122/
Impeachment: An Overview of Constitutional Provisions, Procedure, and Practice
This report focuses on the American impeachment process, which places in the legislative branch the authority to remove the President, Vice President, and other federal civil officers in the executive and judicial branches upon a determination that such officers have engaged in treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors. This report summarizes impeachment proceedings in the 111th Congress, examines relevant constitutional provisions, and provides a brief historical overview. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31311/
Executive Order 13438: Blocking Property of Certain Persons Who Threaten Stabilization Efforts in Iraq
This report provides a brief history of the development of presidential powers in peacetime. It discusses some of the issues that might be raised in light of the contrast between the executive order's broad language and its narrow aim (supplementation of sanctions applicable to Al Qaeda and former Iraqi regime officials to cover terrorists operating in Iraq). It also examines the reach of the executive order and provides legal analyses of some of the constitutional questions raised in the courts by similar sanctions programs, noting that the broad language of the executive order is not unprecedented. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc276870/
Presidential Transition Act: Provisions and Funding
The Presidential Transition Act of 1963 (PTA), as amended, authorizes funding for the General Services Administration (GSA) to provide suitable office space, staff compensation, and other services associated with the presidential transition process. The President's FY2009 budget proposal included $8.52 million in funding for the 2008-2009 presidential transition. This report outlines facets of the PTA, as well as the details of the FY2009 budget appropriations for the 2008-2009 presidential transition. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10816/
National Emergency Powers
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National Emergency Powers
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Executive Order 13438: Blocking Property of Certain Persons Who Threaten Stabilization Efforts in Iraq
Report that provides a brief history of the development of presidential powers in peacetime. It discusses some of the issues that might be raised in light of the contrast between the executive order's broad language and its narrow aim. It examines the reach of the executive order and provides legal analyses of some of the constitutional questions raised in the courts by similar sanctions programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228066/
Counting Electoral Votes: An Overview of Procedures at the Joint Session, Including Objections by Members of Congress
Report that describes the steps which precede the joint session and the procedures set in the Constitution and statute by which the House and Senate jointly certify the results of the electoral vote. It also discusses the procedures set in law governing challenges to the validity of an electoral vote, and makes reference to the procedures followed during the joint session in 2005 by which the election of George W. Bush was certified. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228006/
Recess Appointments of Federal Judges
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Supreme Court Nominations, 1789 - 2005: Actions by the Senate, the Judiciary Committee, and the President
The process of appointing Supreme Court Justices has undergone changes over two centuries, but its most basic feature -- the sharing of power between the President and Senate -- has remained unchanged. To receive a lifetime appointment to the Court, a candidate must first be nominated by the President and then confirmed by the Senate. Table 1 of this report lists and describes actions taken by the Senate, the Senate Judiciary Committee, and the President on all Supreme Court nominations, from 1789 to the present. The table provides the name of each person nominated to the Court and the name of the President making the nomination. It also tracks the dates of formal actions taken, and time elapsing between these actions, by the Senate or Senate Judiciary Committee on each nomination, starting with the date that the Senate received the nomination from the President. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10346/
Submission of the President's Budget in Transition Years
At the time of a presidential transition, one question commonly asked is whether the outgoing or incoming President submits the budget for the upcoming fiscal year. Under past practices, outgoing Presidents in transition years submitted a budget to Congress just prior to leaving office and incoming Presidents usually revised them. President George W. Bush has indicated that he will not submit a budget for FY2010, which is subject to a deadline of Monday, February 2, 2009. The Office of Management and Budget will prepare a current services baseline from which the incoming Administration can develop its budget proposals. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10559/
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