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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Nominations to Cabinet Positions During Inter-Term Transitions Since 1984

Nominations to Cabinet Positions During Inter-Term Transitions Since 1984

Date: July 30, 2014
Creator: Carey, Maeve P.; Greene, Michael & Hogue, Henry B.
Description: This report discusses nominations to Cabinet positions during inter-term presidential transitions. It begins with a discussion of the positions that make up the Cabinet and the process by which nominations to such positions are considered in the Senate. Following this discussion, the report provides data on, and analysis of, the pace of Senate consideration of inter-term transition nominations to Cabinet positions since 1984.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Regular Vetoes and Pocket Vetoes: An Overview

Regular Vetoes and Pocket Vetoes: An Overview

Date: June 18, 2014
Creator: Kosar, Kevin R.
Description: This report provides an overview of the President's veto power, including regular vetoes and pocket vetoes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The U.S. Secret Service: History and Missions

The U.S. Secret Service: History and Missions

Date: June 18, 2014
Creator: Reese, Shawn
Description: This report discusses potential policy questions concerning the U.S. Secret Service through an examination of the Service's history and its statutory authorities, mission, and present activities within Department of Homeland Security (DHS).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Presidential Records Act: Background and Recent Issues for Congress

The Presidential Records Act: Background and Recent Issues for Congress

Date: May 30, 2014
Creator: Ginsberg, Wendy
Description: This report discusses the Presidential Records Act (PRA) and examines policy options related to the capture, maintenance, and use of presidential records.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Declarations of War and Authorizations for the Use of Military Force: Historical Background and Legal Implications

Declarations of War and Authorizations for the Use of Military Force: Historical Background and Legal Implications

Date: April 18, 2014
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer K. & Weed, Matthew C.
Description: This report provides historical background on the enactment of declarations of war and authorizations for the use of force and analyzes their legal effects under international and domestic law. It also sets forth their texts in two appendices. The report includes an extensive listing and summary of statutes that are triggered by a declaration of war, a declaration of national emergency, and/or the existence of a state of war. The report concludes with a summary of the congressional procedures applicable to the enactment of a declaration of war or authorization for the use of force and to measures under the War Powers Resolution.
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Former Presidents: Pensions, Office Allowances, and Other Federal Benefits

Former Presidents: Pensions, Office Allowances, and Other Federal Benefits

Date: April 9, 2014
Creator: Ginsberg, Wendy
Description: This report provides a legislative and cultural history of the Former Presidents Act. It details the pension and benefits provided to former U.S. presidents and their costs; Congress has the authority to reduce, increase, or maintain these benefits.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The U.S. Secret Service: History and Missions

The U.S. Secret Service: History and Missions

Date: March 25, 2014
Creator: Reese, Shawn
Description: This report discusses potential policy questions concerning the U.S. Secret Service through an examination of the Service's history and its statutory authorities, mission, and present activities within Department of Homeland Security (DHS).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
National Monuments and the Antiquities Act

National Monuments and the Antiquities Act

Date: March 21, 2014
Creator: Hardy-Vincent, Carol & Alexander, Kristina
Description: This report discusses the Antiquities Act of 1906, monument issues and controversies, as well as administration and legislative activities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
National Monuments and the Antiquities Act

National Monuments and the Antiquities Act

Date: March 21, 2014
Creator: Vincent, Carol H. & Alexander, Kristina
Description: This report discusses the Antiquities Act of 1906, which authorizes the President to proclaim national monuments on federal lands that contain historic landmarks, historic and prehistoric structures, or other objects of historic or scientific interest. The President is to reserve "the smallest area compatible with the proper care and management of the objects to be protected." The act was designed to protect federal lands and resources quickly, and Presidents have proclaimed a total of 137 monuments. Congress has modified many of these proclamations and has abolished some monuments. Congress also has created monuments under its own authority.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Funding of Presidential Nominating Conventions: Overview and Policy Options

Federal Funding of Presidential Nominating Conventions: Overview and Policy Options

Date: January 27, 2014
Creator: Garrett, R. Sam & Reese, Shawn
Description: This report provides an overview and analysis of two recurring questions surrounding the federal government's role in financing presidential nominating conventions. First, how much public funding supports presidential nominating conventions? Second, what options exist for changing that amount if Congress chooses to do so?
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Executive Order 13438: Blocking Property of Certain Persons Who Threaten Stabilization Efforts in Iraq

Executive Order 13438: Blocking Property of Certain Persons Who Threaten Stabilization Efforts in Iraq

Date: January 24, 2014
Creator: Murphy, M. Maureen
Description: This report provides a brief history of the development of presidential powers in peacetime. It discusses some of the issues that might be raised in light of the contrast between the executive order's broad language and its narrow aim (supplementation of sanctions applicable to Al Qaeda and former Iraqi regime officials to cover terrorists operating in Iraq). It also examines the reach of the executive order and provides legal analyses of some of the constitutional questions raised in the courts by similar sanctions programs, noting that the broad language of the executive order is not unprecedented.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The President's State of the Union Address: Tradition, Function, and Policy Implications

The President's State of the Union Address: Tradition, Function, and Policy Implications

Date: January 24, 2014
Creator: Shogan, Colleen J. & Neale, Thomas H.
Description: This report discusses the State of the Union address, which is a communication between the President and Congress in which the chief executive reports on the current conditions of the United States and provides policy proposals for the upcoming legislative year.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The President's State of the Union Address: Tradition, Function, and Policy Implications

The President's State of the Union Address: Tradition, Function, and Policy Implications

Date: January 24, 2014
Creator: Shogan, Colleen J. & Neale, Thomas H.
Description: This report discusses the State of the Union address, which is a communication between the President and Congress in which the chief executive reports on the current conditions of the United States and provides policy proposals for the upcoming legislative year.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Presidential Appointee Positions Requiring Senate Confirmation and Committees Handling Nominations

Presidential Appointee Positions Requiring Senate Confirmation and Committees Handling Nominations

Date: November 25, 2013
Creator: Davis, Christopher M. & Mansfield, Jerry W.
Description: This report identifies, by Senate committee, presidentially appointed positions requiring Senate confirmation based on referrals as of the date of passage of S. 679, which became P.L. 112-166 on August 10, 2012.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Funding Gaps: A Brief Overview

Federal Funding Gaps: A Brief Overview

Date: October 11, 2013
Creator: Tollestrup, Jessica
Description: This report provides background information on funding gaps since FY 1977, and it discusses the general practice of the federal government when a funding gap occurs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Funding Gaps: A Brief Overview

Federal Funding Gaps: A Brief Overview

Date: September 23, 2013
Creator: Tollestrup, Jessica
Description: This report provides background information on funding gaps since FY 1977, and it discusses the general practice of the federal government when a funding gap occurs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Funding Gaps: A Brief Overview

Federal Funding Gaps: A Brief Overview

Date: September 23, 2013
Creator: Tollestrup, Jessica
Description: This report provides background information regarding the Antideficiency Act (31 U.S.C. 1341 1342, 1511-1519) that generally bars the obligation of funds in the absence of appropriations. The report discusses the interval during the fiscal year when appropriations for a particular project or activity are not enacted into law, either in the form of a regular appropriations act or a continuing resolution (CR), which are referred to as a funding gap.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Recess Appointments: Frequently Asked Questions

Recess Appointments: Frequently Asked Questions

Date: July 7, 2013
Creator: Hogue, Henry B.
Description: This report supplies brief answers to some frequently-asked questions regarding recess appointments. These are appointments to high-level policy-making positions in federal departments which are generally confirmed by the Senate. When the Senate is in recess, the President may make a temporary appointment, called a recess appointment, to any such position without Senate approval.
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Recess Appointments Made by President Barack Obama

Recess Appointments Made by President Barack Obama

Date: June 11, 2013
Creator: Hogue, Henry B. & Bearden, Maureen
Description: This report identifies recess appointments by President Obama, from the beginning of his presidency, on January 20, 2009, until June 3, 2013. The report discusses these recess appointments in the context of recess appointment authorities and practices generally, and it provides related statistics
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
President Obama's First-Term U.S. Circuit and District Court Nominations: An Analysis and Comparison with Presidents Since Reagan

President Obama's First-Term U.S. Circuit and District Court Nominations: An Analysis and Comparison with Presidents Since Reagan

Date: May 2, 2013
Creator: McMillion, Barry J.
Description: This report seeks to inform the current debate in three ways: first, by providing a statistical analysis of President Barack Obama's nominees, during his first term, to U.S. circuit court of appeals and U.S. district court judgeships, and of any actions taken on their nominations by the Senate Judiciary Committee and the full Senate; second, by using various statistical measures to compare the success of President Obama's judicial nominees, during his first term, in advancing through the Senate confirmation process with the success of the judicial nominees during the first terms of the four most recent preceding Presidents (Ronald Reagan, George H.W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush); and third, by identifying various factors which might help explain differences or variations found in judicial nomination statistics across the first terms of the five Presidents.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Former Presidents: Pensions, Office Allowances, and Other Federal Benefits

Former Presidents: Pensions, Office Allowances, and Other Federal Benefits

Date: March 21, 2013
Creator: Ginsberg, Wendy
Description: This report provides a legislative and cultural history of the Former Presidents Act (FPA). It details the benefits provided to former Presidents and their costs. Congress has the authority to reduce, increase, or maintain the pension and benefits provided to former Presidents of the United States. This report considers the potential effects of maintaining the FPA or amending the FPA in ways that might reduce or otherwise modify a former President's benefits.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nominations to Cabinet Positions During Inter-Term Transitions Since 1984

Nominations to Cabinet Positions During Inter-Term Transitions Since 1984

Date: February 20, 2013
Creator: Carey, Maeve P.; Hogue, Henry B. & Greene, Michael W.
Description: This report documents nominations to Cabinet positions during inter-term presidential transitions since 1984. During this period, three two-term Presidents — Ronald W. Reagan, William J. Clinton, and George W. Bush — made 30 nominations during inter-term transitions. For the purposes of this report, CRS considered an inter-term nomination to be one made between November 1 of a President's reelection year and April 30 of the first year of his second term.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Counting Electoral Votes: An Overview of Procedures at the Joint Session, Including Objections by Members of Congress

Counting Electoral Votes: An Overview of Procedures at the Joint Session, Including Objections by Members of Congress

Date: November 30, 2012
Creator: Maskell, Jack & Rybicki, Elizabeth
Description: Report that describes the steps which precede the joint session and the procedures set in the Constitution and statute by which the House and Senate jointly certify the results of the electoral vote. It also discusses the procedures set in law governing challenges to the validity of an electoral vote, and makes reference to the procedures followed during the joint session in 2005 by which the election of George W. Bush was certified.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Presidential Appointee Positions Requiring Senate Confirmation and Committees Handling Nominations

Presidential Appointee Positions Requiring Senate Confirmation and Committees Handling Nominations

Date: November 15, 2012
Creator: Davis, Christopher M. & Mansfield, Jerry W.
Description: Report that identifies, by Senate committee, presidentially appointed positions requiring Senate confirmation based on referrals as of the date of passage of S. 679, which became P.L. 112-166 on August 10, 2012. It begins with a brief description of the referral process and identify, for each committee to which referrals have been made, the positions that fall within the committee's jurisdiction.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department