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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
A Presidential Item Veto
During a news conference on November 4, 2004, President George W. Bush stated that he “would like to see the President have a line-item veto again, one that passed constitutional muster. I think it would help the executive branch work with the legislative branch to make sure that we’re able to maintain budget discipline.” The Supreme Court struck down an earlier version of item-veto authority (the Line Item Veto Act of 1996) in Clinton v. City of New York, 524 U.S. 417 (1998), but several statutory alternatives are available. Options to the Line Item Veto Act have been proposed over the years, including an amendment to the Constitution to grant the President item-veto authority. The line-item veto is listed among several budget reform proposals included in the FY2005 budget, but a more specific recommendation is expected to be developed by the Administration and submitted to Congress at the start of the 109th Congress. This report analyzes the statutory and constitutional alternatives that are likely to be considered and will be updated as necessary. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7400/
Recess Appointments: A Legal Overview
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7297/
Presidential and Vice Presidential Succession: Overview and Current Legislation
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7582/
Recess Appointments: A Legal Overview
This report provides an overview of the Recess Appointments Clause, exploring its historical application and legal interpretation by the executive branch, the courts, and the Comptroller General. Furthermore, congressional legislation designed to prevent the President's overuse or misuse of the Clause is also explored. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40201/
The U.S. Secret Service: An Examination and Analysis of Its Evolving Missions
This report frames potential policy questions concerning the U.S. Secret Service's (USSS) mission and organization through an examination of the USSS history and its statutory authorities, mission, and present activities within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462764/
The President's State of the Union Address: Tradition, Function, and Policy Implications
This report discusses the State of the Union address, which is a communication between the President and Congress in which the chief executive reports on the current conditions of the United States and provides policy proposals for the upcoming legislative year. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc276875/
Gifts to the President of the United States
Report that addresses provisions of federal law and regulation restricting the acceptance of personal gifts by the President of the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227779/
Votes Other than Favorably on Judicial Nominations, 1939-2003
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8195/
Presidential Directives: Background and Overview
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5247/
Presidential and Vice Presidential Succession: Overview and Current Legislation
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5248/
Cloture Attempts on Nominations
Cloture is the only means by which the Senate can vote to limit debate on a matter, and thereby overcome a possible filibuster. It would be erroneous, however, to assume that cases in which cloture is sought are the same as those in which a filibuster occurs. Cloture may be sought when no filibuster is taking place, and filibusters may occur without cloture being sought. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6157/
Presidential Succession: An Overview with Analysis of Legislation Proposed in the 109th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7295/
Social Security: Report of the President's Commission to Strengthen Social Security
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7002/
President Bush's 2002 State Visits in Asia: Implications
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3331/
Contemporary Developments in Presidential Elections
This report considers contemporary developments in presidential elections. It emphasizes three topics chosen for their recurring importance and notable recent developments: (1) nominating procedures; (2) campaign finance; and (3) the electoral college. The report highlights significant developments in these areas, particularly for the 2008 and 2012 elections. It also provides background information about the presidential election process in general. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84016/
Presidential Claims of Executive Privilege: History, Law, Practice, and Recent Developments
This report discusses the background of claims of executive privilege, ending with a look into how President Obama has used them. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122238/
Cloture Attempts on Nominations
This report discusses topics regarding cloture as a means to limit debate and overcome a possible filibuster. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103181/
Regular Vetoes and Pocket Vetoes: An Overview
This report provides an overview of the President's veto power, including regular vetoes and pocket vetoes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332861/
Regular Vetoes and Pocket Vetoes: An Overview
This report provides an overview of the President's veto power, including regular vetoes and pocket vetoes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29741/
Recess Appointments Made by President Barack Obama
This report identifies recess appointments by President Obama, from the beginning of his presidency, on January 20, 2009, until June 3, 2013. The report discusses these recess appointments in the context of recess appointment authorities and practices generally, and it provides related statistics digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463185/
The President's State of the Union Address: Tradition, Function, and Policy Implications
This report discusses the State of the Union address, which is a communication between the President and Congress in which the chief executive reports on the current conditions of the United States and provides policy proposals for the upcoming legislative year. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462081/
The President's State of the Union Address: Tradition, Function, and Policy Implications
This report discusses the State of the Union address, which is a communication between the President and Congress in which the chief executive reports on the current conditions of the United States and provides policy proposals for the upcoming legislative year. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462812/
Tax Havens: International Tax Avoidance and Evasion
This report discusses the State of the Union address, which is a communication between the President and Congress in which the chief executive reports on the current conditions of the United States and provides policy proposals for the upcoming legislative year. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501588/
The U.S. Secret Service: An Examination and Analysis of Its Evolving Missions
The U.S. Secret Service has two missions: criminal investigations and protection. This report looks at the history of the organization and purpose as it relates to Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc85477/
The U.S. Secret Service: History and Missions
This report discusses potential policy questions concerning the U.S. Secret Service through an examination of the Service's history and its statutory authorities, mission, and present activities within Department of Homeland Security (DHS). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306565/
The U.S. Secret Service: History and Missions
This report discusses potential policy questions concerning the U.S. Secret Service through an examination of the Service's history and its statutory authorities, mission, and present activities within Department of Homeland Security (DHS). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332961/
The U.S. Secret Service: An Examination and Analysis of Its Evolving Missions
This report frames potential policy questions concerning the U.S. Secret Service's (USSS's) mission and organization through an examination of the USSS history and its statutory authorities, mission, and present activities within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501871/
The U.S. Secret Service: An Examination and Analysis of Its Evolving Missions
This report frames potential policy questions concerning the U.S. Secret Service's (USSS's) mission and organization through an examination of the USSS history and its statutory authorities, mission, and present activities within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501658/
The U.S. Secret Service: An Examination and Analysis of Its Evolving Missions
This report frames potential policy questions concerning the U.S. Secret Service's (USSS's) mission and organization through an examination of the USSS history and its statutory authorities, mission, and present activities within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501661/
The U.S. Secret Service: An Examination and Analysis of Its Evolving Missions
This report frames potential policy questions concerning the U.S. Secret Service's (USSS's) mission and organization through an examination of the USSS history and its statutory authorities, mission, and present activities within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501862/
The U.S. Secret Service: An Examination and Analysis of Its Evolving Missions
This report frames potential policy questions concerning the U.S. Secret Service's (USSS's) mission and organization through an examination of the USSS history and its statutory authorities, mission, and present activities within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501891/
The U.S. Secret Service: An Examination and Analysis of Its Evolving Missions
This report frames potential policy questions concerning the U.S. Secret Service's (USSS's) mission and organization through an examination of the USSS history and its statutory authorities, mission, and present activities within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501792/
Recess Appointments: Frequently Asked Questions
This report supplies brief answers to some frequently-asked questions regarding recess appointments. These are appointments to high-level policy-making positions in federal departments which are generally confirmed by the Senate. When the Senate is in recess, the President may make a temporary appointment, called a recess appointment, to any such position without Senate approval. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272122/
Impeachment: An Overview of Constitutional Provisions, Procedure, and Practice
This report focuses on the American impeachment process, which places in the legislative branch the authority to remove the President, Vice President, and other federal civil officers in the executive and judicial branches upon a determination that such officers have engaged in treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors. This report summarizes impeachment proceedings in the 111th Congress, examines relevant constitutional provisions, and provides a brief historical overview. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31311/
Executive Order 13438: Blocking Property of Certain Persons Who Threaten Stabilization Efforts in Iraq
This report provides a brief history of the development of presidential powers in peacetime. It discusses some of the issues that might be raised in light of the contrast between the executive order's broad language and its narrow aim (supplementation of sanctions applicable to Al Qaeda and former Iraqi regime officials to cover terrorists operating in Iraq). It also examines the reach of the executive order and provides legal analyses of some of the constitutional questions raised in the courts by similar sanctions programs, noting that the broad language of the executive order is not unprecedented. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc276870/
Presidential Transition Act: Provisions and Funding
The Presidential Transition Act of 1963 (PTA), as amended, authorizes funding for the General Services Administration (GSA) to provide suitable office space, staff compensation, and other services associated with the presidential transition process. The President's FY2009 budget proposal included $8.52 million in funding for the 2008-2009 presidential transition. This report outlines facets of the PTA, as well as the details of the FY2009 budget appropriations for the 2008-2009 presidential transition. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10816/
National Emergency Powers
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1551/
National Emergency Powers
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1553/
Executive Order 13438: Blocking Property of Certain Persons Who Threaten Stabilization Efforts in Iraq
Report that provides a brief history of the development of presidential powers in peacetime. It discusses some of the issues that might be raised in light of the contrast between the executive order's broad language and its narrow aim. It examines the reach of the executive order and provides legal analyses of some of the constitutional questions raised in the courts by similar sanctions programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228066/
Counting Electoral Votes: An Overview of Procedures at the Joint Session, Including Objections by Members of Congress
Report that describes the steps which precede the joint session and the procedures set in the Constitution and statute by which the House and Senate jointly certify the results of the electoral vote. It also discusses the procedures set in law governing challenges to the validity of an electoral vote, and makes reference to the procedures followed during the joint session in 2005 by which the election of George W. Bush was certified. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228006/
Recess Appointments of Federal Judges
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1859/
Supreme Court Nominations, 1789 - 2005: Actions by the Senate, the Judiciary Committee, and the President
The process of appointing Supreme Court Justices has undergone changes over two centuries, but its most basic feature -- the sharing of power between the President and Senate -- has remained unchanged. To receive a lifetime appointment to the Court, a candidate must first be nominated by the President and then confirmed by the Senate. Table 1 of this report lists and describes actions taken by the Senate, the Senate Judiciary Committee, and the President on all Supreme Court nominations, from 1789 to the present. The table provides the name of each person nominated to the Court and the name of the President making the nomination. It also tracks the dates of formal actions taken, and time elapsing between these actions, by the Senate or Senate Judiciary Committee on each nomination, starting with the date that the Senate received the nomination from the President. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10346/
Submission of the President's Budget in Transition Years
At the time of a presidential transition, one question commonly asked is whether the outgoing or incoming President submits the budget for the upcoming fiscal year. Under past practices, outgoing Presidents in transition years submitted a budget to Congress just prior to leaving office and incoming Presidents usually revised them. President George W. Bush has indicated that he will not submit a budget for FY2010, which is subject to a deadline of Monday, February 2, 2009. The Office of Management and Budget will prepare a current services baseline from which the incoming Administration can develop its budget proposals. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10559/
Jonathan Pollard: Background and Considerations for Presidential Clemency
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1540/
Iran: Profile of President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmedinejad was elected June 24, 2005, to a four-year term, becoming the first non-cleric president in 24 years. He defeated former president Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani in a run-off. Prior to his 2005 election to the presidency, Ahmadinejad did not hold an elected office and was a virtual unknown in the international arena. This report covers his background; his victory over the well-known former president Rafsanjani; his remarks about the West, including Israel; and recent visits to Iraq and Latin America. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10687/
Presidential Elections in the United States: A Primer
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1157/
Ocean Commissions: Ocean Policy Review and Outlook
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8727/
Candidates for Presidential Nomination in 1988: Major Declared Contestants and Campaign Organizations
This report lists the candidates that have withdrawn from the 1988 Presidential race. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9067/
Censure of the President by the Congress
Exploring a possible compromise between an impeachment and taking no congressional action, certain Members of Congress and congressional commentators have suggested a congressional “censure” of the President to express the Congress’ disapproval of the President’s conduct which has been the subject of an ongoing independent counsel investigation. This report provides and overview and discussion of the legal basis and congressional precedents regarding a congressional “censure” of the President. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs596/
National Emergency Powers
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8844/