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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Proper Scope of Questioning of Supreme Court Nominees: The Current Debate

Proper Scope of Questioning of Supreme Court Nominees: The Current Debate

Date: September 1, 2005
Creator: Rutkus, Denis Steven
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Funding Gaps: A Brief Overview

Federal Funding Gaps: A Brief Overview

Date: September 24, 2008
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: The interval during the fiscal year when agency appropriations are not enacted into law, either in the form of a regular appropriations act or a continuing resolution, is referred to as a funding gap. When a funding gap occurs, the federal government begins a shutdown of the affected agencies, entailing the prompt furlough of non-emergency personnel and curtailment of agency activities. This report discusses the funding gaps that occurred between FY1977-FY2008, as well as the events surrounding them and related legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals

Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals

Date: November 20, 2000
Creator: McMurtry, Virginia A
Description: In recent years conflicting budget priorities and divided political control have accentuated the institutional tensions between the executive and legislative branches inherent in the federal budget process. President Clinton, like his two predecessors, called for an item veto, or possibly expanded impoundment authority, to provide him with greater control over federal spending. This report provides a brief history of impoundment and discusses the debate surrounding the line item veto.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals

Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals

Date: March 14, 2002
Creator: McMurtry, Virginia A
Description: In recent years conflicting budget priorities and divided political control have accentuated the institutional tensions between the executive and legislative branches inherent in the federal budget process. President Clinton, like his two predecessors, called for an item veto, or possibly expanded impoundment authority, to provide him with greater control over federal spending. This report provides a brief history of impoundment and discusses the debate surrounding the line item veto.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals

Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals

Date: September 26, 2005
Creator: McMurtry, Virginia A
Description: In recent years conflicting budget priorities and divided political control have accentuated the institutional tensions between the executive and legislative branches inherent in the federal budget process. President Bush, like his recent predecessors, has called for an item veto, or possibly expanded impoundment authority, to provide him with greater control over federal spending. This report provides a brief history of impoundment and discusses the debate surrounding the line item veto.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals

Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals

Date: June 20, 2002
Creator: McMurtry, Virginia A.
Description: In recent years conflicting budget priorities and divided political control have accentuated the institutional tensions between the executive and legislative branches inherent in the federal budget process. President Clinton, like his two predecessors, called for an item veto, or possibly expanded impoundment authority, to provide him with greater control over federal spending. This report provides a brief history of impoundment and discusses the debate surrounding the line item veto.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals

Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals

Date: November 27, 2002
Creator: McMurtry, Virginia A.
Description: In recent years conflicting budget priorities and divided political control have accentuated the institutional tensions between the executive and legislative branches inherent in the federal budget process. President Clinton, like his two predecessors, called for an item veto, or possibly expanded impoundment authority, to provide him with greater control over federal spending. This report provides a brief history of impoundment and discusses the debate surrounding the line item veto.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals

Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals

Date: August 15, 2002
Creator: McMurtry, Virginia A
Description: In recent years conflicting budget priorities and divided political control have accentuated the institutional tensions between the executive and legislative branches inherent in the federal budget process. President Clinton, like his two predecessors, called for an item veto, or possibly expanded impoundment authority, to provide him with greater control over federal spending. This report provides a brief history of impoundment and discusses the debate surrounding the line item veto.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals

Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals

Date: July 2, 2003
Creator: McMurtry, Virginia A
Description: In recent years conflicting budget priorities and divided political control have accentuated the institutional tensions between the executive and legislative branches inherent in the federal budget process. President Clinton, like his two predecessors, called for an item veto, or possibly expanded impoundment authority, to provide him with greater control over federal spending. This report provides a brief history of impoundment and discusses the debate surrounding the line item veto.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals

Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals

Date: January 24, 2003
Creator: McMurtry, Virginia A.
Description: In recent years conflicting budget priorities and divided political control have accentuated the institutional tensions between the executive and legislative branches inherent in the federal budget process. President Clinton, like his two predecessors, called for an item veto, or possibly expanded impoundment authority, to provide him with greater control over federal spending. This report provides a brief history of impoundment and discusses the debate surrounding the line item veto.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals

Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals

Date: September 3, 2003
Creator: McMurtry, Virginia A.
Description: In recent years conflicting budget priorities and divided political control have accentuated the institutional tensions between the executive and legislative branches inherent in the federal budget process. President Clinton, like his two predecessors, called for an item veto, or possibly expanded impoundment authority, to provide him with greater control over federal spending. This report provides a brief history of impoundment and discusses the debate surrounding the line item veto.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals

Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals

Date: May 8, 2003
Creator: McMurtry, Virginia A.
Description: In recent years conflicting budget priorities and divided political control have accentuated the institutional tensions between the executive and legislative branches inherent in the federal budget process. President Clinton, like his two predecessors, called for an item veto, or possibly expanded impoundment authority, to provide him with greater control over federal spending. This report provides a brief history of impoundment and discusses the debate surrounding the line item veto.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Mid-Session Review of the President's Budget: Timing Issues

The Mid-Session Review of the President's Budget: Timing Issues

Date: August 19, 2008
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: This report provides information on the timing of submission of the mid-session review for FY1980-FY2009, a 30-year period that covers all or part of the administrations of five Presidents, applying to the last two years of the Carter Administration, and the full terms of the Reagan, George H. W. Bush, Clinton, and George W. Bush Administrations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Presidential Advisers' Testimony Before Congressional Committees: An Overview

Presidential Advisers' Testimony Before Congressional Committees: An Overview

Date: July 16, 2008
Creator: Relyea, Harold C. & Tatelman, Todd B.
Description: This report discusses the executive office of the President, presidential adviser growth, and presidential advisers' testimony.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals

Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals

Date: March 14, 2003
Creator: McMurtry, Virginia A
Description: On February 3, 2003, President Bush transmitted his budget submission for FY2004, which again contained some proposals for reform of the budget process, including a reformulated line item veto for the President. This report discusses the history of the line item veto and examines the policy debate regarding the issue.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Group of Eight Summits: Evolution and Possible Reform

The Group of Eight Summits: Evolution and Possible Reform

Date: March 17, 2006
Creator: Weiss, Martin A
Description: This report discusses the Group of Eight (G8) summit, which is a forum to informally discuss and create policies on major foreign policy issues among the heads of state of the United States, France, Germany, Canada, Italy, the United Kingdom, Japan, and Russia.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Evolution of the Senate's Role in the Nomination and Confirmation Process: A Brief History

Evolution of the Senate's Role in the Nomination and Confirmation Process: A Brief History

Date: July 2, 2008
Creator: Palmer, Betsy
Description: This report discusses the process of Advice and Consent in the Senate. Article II, Section 2 of the Constitution states that the President "shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other Public Ministers and Counsels, Judges of the Supreme Court, and all Other Officers of the United States, whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by law…."
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals

Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals

Date: March 1, 2001
Creator: McMurtry, Virginia A
Description: This report discusses President's authority to call for an item veto, or possibly expanded impoundment authority, consideration of impoundment reform, to provide him with greater control over federal spending.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Presidential Veto and Congressional Procedure

The Presidential Veto and Congressional Procedure

Date: February 27, 2004
Creator: Sollenberger, Mitchel A.
Description: This report provides a brief overview of procedures involved in vetoing a bill and the ways Congress can respond to a presidential veto. Presidential vetoes are a rejection of legislation approved by majorities in both houses of Congress. Vetoes and congressional efforts to override them are often the reason for, or a reflection of, conflict between Congress and the President. The threat of a presidential veto can prompt the modification of bills moving through the legislative process. Tabular data are provided on the number of presidential vetoes exercised by each President from George Washington to William Clinton.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congressional Overrides of Presidential Vetoes

Congressional Overrides of Presidential Vetoes

Date: April 7, 2004
Creator: Sollenberger, Mitchel A.
Description: This report discusses Congress' power to override presidential vetoes. The President's veto authority is among his most significant tools in legislative dealings with Congress. It is effective not only in preventing the passage of legislation undesirable to the President, but also as a threat, sometimes forcing Congress to modify legislation before it is presented to the President.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals

Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals

Date: November 22, 2004
Creator: McMurtry, Virginia A.
Description: This report provides a brief history of impoundment and discusses the debate surrounding the line item veto, particularly in relation to federal spending and the budget process.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Effects, and Process

Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Effects, and Process

Date: September 20, 2004
Creator: Kosar, Kevin R.
Description: This report provides a brief overview of the causes and effects of federal government shutdowns. This report provides a brief overview of the causes and effects of federal government shutdowns. When federal agencies and programs lack appropriated funding, they must cease operations, except in emergency situations. The failure of the President and Congress to reach agreement on funding measures has caused government shutdowns. It is necessary either to enact temporary funding legislation at the close of the fiscal year or to shut down the activities that are not funded at that time.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Presidential Appointee Positions Requiring Senate Confirmation and Committees Handling Nominations

Presidential Appointee Positions Requiring Senate Confirmation and Committees Handling Nominations

Date: March 18, 2008
Creator: Hogue, Henry B.; Bearden, Maureen & Lisbeth, Terrence L.
Description: This report identifies, by Senate committee, presidentially appointed positions requiring Senate confirmation based on referrals as of October 31, 2007. For each committee list, positions are categorized as full- or part-time and then grouped by department or agency. Where nominations have been referred to more than one committee, the organizations and titles are noted under each of the committees to which the nominations were referred. The lists also include the lengths of fixed terms, where applicable. Some commissions, councils, and other multi-member entities are required, by their enabling statutes, to maintain political balance in some way.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Presidential Appointments to Full-time Positions in Executive Departments During the 109th Congress, 2005-2006

Presidential Appointments to Full-time Positions in Executive Departments During the 109th Congress, 2005-2006

Date: June 10, 2008
Creator: Hogue, Henry B.; Bearden, Maureen & Ely, Dana
Description: This report provides an overview of the process for filling positions to which the President makes appointments with the advice and consent of the Senate (PAS positions). It also identifies, for the 109th Congress, all nominations to executive level full-time positions in the 15 departments. Profiles of the departments provide basic information regarding their full-time PAS positions and related appointment activity during the 109th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department