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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
A Presidential Item Veto
During a news conference on November 4, 2004, President George W. Bush stated that he “would like to see the President have a line-item veto again, one that passed constitutional muster. I think it would help the executive branch work with the legislative branch to make sure that we’re able to maintain budget discipline.” The Supreme Court struck down an earlier version of item-veto authority (the Line Item Veto Act of 1996) in Clinton v. City of New York, 524 U.S. 417 (1998), but several statutory alternatives are available. Options to the Line Item Veto Act have been proposed over the years, including an amendment to the Constitution to grant the President item-veto authority. The line-item veto is listed among several budget reform proposals included in the FY2005 budget, but a more specific recommendation is expected to be developed by the Administration and submitted to Congress at the start of the 109th Congress. This report analyzes the statutory and constitutional alternatives that are likely to be considered and will be updated as necessary. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7400/
Recess Appointments: A Legal Overview
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Presidential and Vice Presidential Succession: Overview and Current Legislation
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The Electoral College: Reform Proposals in the 108th Congress
American voters elect the President and Vice President of the United States under a complex arrangement of constitutional provisions, federal and state laws, and political party practices known as the electoral college system. Despite occasional close elections, this system has delivered uncontested results in 46 of 50 elections since adoption of the 12th Amendment, effective in 1804. Throughout this period, nevertheless, it has been the subject of persistent criticism and many reform proposals. Related measures fall into two basic categories: those that would eliminate the electoral college and substitute direct popular election of the President and Vice President, and those that would retain the existing system in some form and correct perceived defects. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9300/
Electoral Votes by State: Changes Resulting from the 1980 Census
This report presents a chart and a U.S. map describing the electoral votes by state and the changes resulted from the 1980 census. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8600/
9/11 Commission Recommendations: The Senate Confirmation Process for Presidential Nominees
On July 22, 2004, the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, known as the 9/11 Commission, issued its final report, detailing the events up to and including the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks upon the United States. The 9/11 Commission recommended that the Senate adopt rules requiring hearings and votes to confirm or reject national security nominees within 30 days of their submission at the start of each new presidential administration. Implementing the commission's proposal would involve imposing new restrictions on both the power of committee chairs to control the agenda of their committees and the rights of Senators to delay or block nominations through holds and extended debate. This report discusses in detail this proposal, how it could be implemented, and the potential effects of its implementation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10108/
Former Presidents: Federal Pension and Retirement Benefits
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The Pocket Veto: Its Current Status
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The President's State of the Union Message: Frequently Asked Questions
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Recess Appointments: Frequently Asked Questions
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President Clinton's Vetoes
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The President's State of the Union Address: Tradition, Function, and Policy Implications
This report explores the President's State of the Union Address, in which the President reports to Congress on the current conditions of the United States and provides policy proposals for the upcoming legislative year. This report also discusses the State of the Union's considerable evolution over time. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31328/
Proposals to Reform Our Presidential Electoral System: A Survey of the Historical Background and Development of the Electoral College, and a Compilation of Proposals to Reform It, With Pro and Con Analyses
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8166/
Recess Appointments: A Legal Overview
This report provides an overview of the Recess Appointments Clause, exploring its historical application and legal interpretation by the executive branch, the courts, and the Comptroller General. Furthermore, congressional legislation designed to prevent the President's overuse or misuse of the Clause is also explored. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40201/
The Presidential Inauguration of 2005: Basic Facts and Information on Inaugural Festivities
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Presidential Vetoes of Annual Defense Authorization Bills
This report briefly discusses the historical precedent of Defense Secretary Ashton B. Carter's recommendation that President Obama veto the conference report on H.R. 1735, the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for FY2016. If Obama were to veto the measure, it would mark the fifth time since 1961 that a president has vetoed that measure. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795557/
Presidential Vetoes, 1789-Present: A Summary Overview
This report discusses the veto power vested in the President by Article I, Section 7 of the Constitution. It provides a general overview and a table of presidential vetoes from 1789-2004, listing the coincident Congresses, regular vetoes, pocket vetoes, total vetoes, and vetoes overridden for each president. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824807/
President Clinton's Vetoes
This report provides a table outlining the bills vetoed by President William Jefferson Clinton's two terms in office. It includes an overview and the bill number, date, title, and override attempts for each veto. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824478/
Speed of Presidential and Senate Actions on Supreme Court Nominations, 1900-2005
This report provides information on the amount of time taken to act on all Supreme Court nominations occurring between 1900 and the present. It focuses on the actual amounts of time that Presidents and the Senate have taken to act (as opposed to the elapsed time between official points in the process). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821169/
President of the United States: Compensation
This report discusses the President’s compensation and the three most recent increases to the salary enacted in 1949 (81st Congress), 1969 (91st Congress), and 1999 (106th Congress). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821398/
Presidential Transitions: Background and Federal Support
This report discusses the Presidential Transition Act, which authorizes funding for the General Services Administration (GSA) to provide suitable office space, staff compensation and other services associated with the transition process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822456/
Impeachment Grounds: Part I: Pre-Constitutional Convention Materials
This report is a collection of selected background materials pertinent to the issue of what constitutes impeachable misconduct for purposes of Article II, section 4 of the United States Constitution quoted below. It includes excerpts from Blackstone, Wooddeson, and the impeachment clauses in pre-Constitutional Convention state constitutions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821526/
An Overview of the Impeachment Process
The Constitution sets forth the general principles which control the procedural aspects of impeachment, vesting the power to impeach in the House of Representatives, while imbuing the Senate with the power to try impeachments. Both the Senate and the House have designed procedures to implement these general principles in dealing with a wide range of impeachment issues. This report provides a brief overview of the impeachment process, reflecting the roles of both the House and the Senate during the course of an impeachment inquiry and trial. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821524/
The U.S. Secret Service: An Examination and Analysis of Its Evolving Missions
This report frames potential policy questions concerning the U.S. Secret Service's (USSS) mission and organization through an examination of the USSS history and its statutory authorities, mission, and present activities within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462764/
Obama Library Likely Headed to Chicago's South Side
This report briefly discusses the proposed construction of President Barack Obama's presidential library in the South Side of Chicago. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627022/
The President's State of the Union Address: Tradition, Function, and Policy Implications
This report discusses the State of the Union address, which is a communication between the President and Congress in which the chief executive reports on the current conditions of the United States and provides policy proposals for the upcoming legislative year. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc276875/
Regular Vetoes and Pocket Vetoes: An Overview
This report provides an overview of the President's veto power, including regular vetoes and pocket vetoes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332861/
Recess Appointments Made by President Barack Obama
This report identifies recess appointments by President Obama, from the beginning of his presidency, on January 20, 2009, until June 3, 2013. The report discusses these recess appointments in the context of recess appointment authorities and practices generally, and it provides related statistics digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463185/
The President's State of the Union Address: Tradition, Function, and Policy Implications
This report discusses the State of the Union address, which is a communication between the President and Congress in which the chief executive reports on the current conditions of the United States and provides policy proposals for the upcoming legislative year. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462081/
The President's State of the Union Address: Tradition, Function, and Policy Implications
This report discusses the State of the Union address, which is a communication between the President and Congress in which the chief executive reports on the current conditions of the United States and provides policy proposals for the upcoming legislative year. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462812/
Tax Havens: International Tax Avoidance and Evasion
This report discusses the State of the Union address, which is a communication between the President and Congress in which the chief executive reports on the current conditions of the United States and provides policy proposals for the upcoming legislative year. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501588/
Cloture Attempts on Nominations
This report discusses topics regarding cloture as a means to limit debate and overcome a possible filibuster. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103181/
Cloture Attempts on Nominations
Cloture is the only means by which the Senate can vote to limit debate on a matter, and thereby overcome a possible filibuster. It would be erroneous, however, to assume that cases in which cloture is sought are the same as those in which a filibuster occurs. Cloture may be sought when no filibuster is taking place, and filibusters may occur without cloture being sought. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6157/
Contemporary Developments in Presidential Elections
This report considers contemporary developments in presidential elections. It emphasizes three topics chosen for their recurring importance and notable recent developments: (1) nominating procedures; (2) campaign finance; and (3) the electoral college. The report highlights significant developments in these areas, particularly for the 2008 and 2012 elections. It also provides background information about the presidential election process in general. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84016/
Gifts to the President of the United States
Report that addresses provisions of federal law and regulation restricting the acceptance of personal gifts by the President of the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227779/
Presidential Succession: An Overview with Analysis of Legislation Proposed in the 109th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7295/
President Bush's 2002 State Visits in Asia: Implications
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3331/
Presidential Directives: Background and Overview
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5247/
Presidential and Vice Presidential Succession: Overview and Current Legislation
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5248/
Presidential Appointments to Full-Time Positions in Independent and Other Agencies During the 110th Congress
This report explains the process for filling positions to which the President makes appointments with the advice and consent of the Senate (PAS positions). It also identifies, for the 110th Congress, all nominations to full-time positions requiring Senate confirmation in 39 organizations in the executive branch (26 independent agencies, 6 agencies in the Executive Office of the President (EOP), and 7 multilateral banking organizations) and 4 agencies in the legislative branch. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40135/
Votes Other than Favorably on Judicial Nominations, 1939-2003
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8195/
Regular Vetoes and Pocket Vetoes: An Overview
This report provides an overview of the President's veto power, including regular vetoes and pocket vetoes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29741/
Presidential Claims of Executive Privilege: History, Law, Practice, and Recent Developments
This report discusses the background of claims of executive privilege, ending with a look into how President Obama has used them. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122238/
Presidential Claims of Executive Privilege: History, Law, Practice and Recent Developments
This report discusses the background of claims of executive privilege, a right to preserve the confidentiality of information and documents in the face of legislative demands, ending with a look into how President George W. Bush has used them. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795600/
Presidential Transitions: Issues Involving Outgoing and Incoming Administrations
This report discusses the issues involving transfer of power from one administration to the other. The smooth and orderly transfer of power can be a notable feature of presidential transitions, and a testament to the legitimacy and durability of the electoral and democratic processes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795730/
Social Security: Report of the President's Commission to Strengthen Social Security
This report describes the Commission’s three reform plans. The first plan would make no other changes to the program. The second plan would slow the growth of Social Security through one major provision that would index initial benefits to prices rather than wages. The third plan would slow future program growth through a variety of measures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7002/
Presidential Directives: Background and Overview
This report provides an overview of the different kinds of directives that have primarily been utilized by twentieth-century Presidents. It includes background on the historical development, accounting, use, and effect of such directives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824501/
Presidential Directives: Background and Overview
This report provides an overview of the different kinds of directives that have been utilized primarily by twentieth century Presidents. It presents background on their historical development, accounting, use, and effect. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821672/
Presidential Appointments to Full-Time Positions in Independent and Other Agencies During the 112th Congress
This report identifies, for the 112th Congress, all nominations to full-time positions requiring Senate confirmation in 40 organizations in the executive branch (27 independent agencies, 6 agencies in the Executive Office of the President [EOP], and 7 multilateral organizations) and 4 agencies in the legislative branc digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822623/
The President’s Reorganization Authority: Review and Analysis
This report addresses three specific issues: (1) the historical basis and use of the President’s reorganization authority; (2) the factors contributing to the lapse of the President’s reorganization authority in 1984,1 and (3) thoughts on the future of reorganization in the executive branch. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821067/