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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The Electoral College: Reform Proposals in the 108th Congress

The Electoral College: Reform Proposals in the 108th Congress

Date: June 30, 2005
Creator: Neale, Thomas H
Description: American voters elect the President and Vice President of the United States under a complex arrangement of constitutional provisions, federal and state laws, and political party practices known as the electoral college system. Despite occasional close elections, this system has delivered uncontested results in 46 of 50 elections since adoption of the 12th Amendment, effective in 1804. Throughout this period, nevertheless, it has been the subject of persistent criticism and many reform proposals. Related measures fall into two basic categories: those that would eliminate the electoral college and substitute direct popular election of the President and Vice President, and those that would retain the existing system in some form and correct perceived defects.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Recess Appointments: Frequently Asked Questions

Recess Appointments: Frequently Asked Questions

Date: September 10, 2002
Creator: Hogue, Henry B
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
A Presidential Item Veto

A Presidential Item Veto

Date: December 2, 2004
Creator: Fisher, Louis
Description: During a news conference on November 4, 2004, President George W. Bush stated that he “would like to see the President have a line-item veto again, one that passed constitutional muster. I think it would help the executive branch work with the legislative branch to make sure that we’re able to maintain budget discipline.” The Supreme Court struck down an earlier version of item-veto authority (the Line Item Veto Act of 1996) in Clinton v. City of New York, 524 U.S. 417 (1998), but several statutory alternatives are available. Options to the Line Item Veto Act have been proposed over the years, including an amendment to the Constitution to grant the President item-veto authority. The line-item veto is listed among several budget reform proposals included in the FY2005 budget, but a more specific recommendation is expected to be developed by the Administration and submitted to Congress at the start of the 109th Congress. This report analyzes the statutory and constitutional alternatives that are likely to be considered and will be updated as necessary.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Recess Appointments: A Legal Overview

Recess Appointments: A Legal Overview

Date: July 26, 2005
Creator: Halstead, T.J.
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Presidential and Vice Presidential Succession: Overview and Current Legislation

Presidential and Vice Presidential Succession: Overview and Current Legislation

Date: September 27, 2004
Creator: Neale, Thomas H
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The U.S. Secret Service: An Examination and Analysis of Its Evolving Missions

The U.S. Secret Service: An Examination and Analysis of Its Evolving Missions

Date: July 31, 2008
Creator: Reese, Shawn
Description: This report frames potential policy questions concerning the U.S. Secret Service's (USSS) mission and organization through an examination of the USSS history and its statutory authorities, mission, and present activities within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Votes Other than Favorably on Judicial Nominations, 1939-2003

Votes Other than Favorably on Judicial Nominations, 1939-2003

Date: February 10, 2004
Creator: Sollenberger, Mitchel A
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Presidential Directives: Background and Overview

Presidential Directives: Background and Overview

Date: February 10, 2003
Creator: Relyea, Harold C
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Presidential and Vice Presidential Succession: Overview and Current Legislation

Presidential and Vice Presidential Succession: Overview and Current Legislation

Date: March 25, 2003
Creator: Neale, Thomas H
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Cloture Attempts on Nominations

Cloture Attempts on Nominations

Date: April 22, 2005
Creator: Beth, Richard S & Palmer, Betsy
Description: Cloture is the only means by which the Senate can vote to limit debate on a matter, and thereby overcome a possible filibuster. It would be erroneous, however, to assume that cases in which cloture is sought are the same as those in which a filibuster occurs. Cloture may be sought when no filibuster is taking place, and filibusters may occur without cloture being sought.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department