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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Recess Appointments: Frequently Asked Questions

Recess Appointments: Frequently Asked Questions

Date: August 25, 2006
Creator: Hogue, Henry B.
Description: This report supplies brief answers to some frequently asked questions regarding recess appointments. When the Senate is in recess, the President may make a temporary appointment, called a recess appointment, to any such position without Senate approval (Article II, Section 2, Clause 3).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Recess Appointments Made by President Barack Obama

Recess Appointments Made by President Barack Obama

Date: June 11, 2013
Creator: Hogue, Henry B. & Bearden, Maureen
Description: This report identifies recess appointments by President Obama, from the beginning of his presidency, on January 20, 2009, until June 3, 2013. The report discusses these recess appointments in the context of recess appointment authorities and practices generally, and it provides related statistics
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Recess Appointments Made by President George W. Bush, January 20, 2001- October 31, 2008

Recess Appointments Made by President George W. Bush, January 20, 2001- October 31, 2008

Date: November 3, 2008
Creator: Hogue, Henry B. & Bearden, Maureen
Description: This report identifies recess appointments made by President George W. Bush from the time he took office on January 20, 2001, through October 31, 2008. Basic descriptive statistics regarding these appointments are also provided.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Recess Appointments of Federal Judges

Recess Appointments of Federal Judges

Date: September 5, 2001
Creator: Fisher, Louis
Description: None
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Regular Vetoes and Pocket Vetoes: An Overview

Regular Vetoes and Pocket Vetoes: An Overview

Date: June 18, 2014
Creator: Kosar, Kevin R.
Description: This report provides an overview of the President's veto power, including regular vetoes and pocket vetoes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Regular Vetoes and Pocket Vetoes: An Overview

Regular Vetoes and Pocket Vetoes: An Overview

Date: October 18, 2010
Creator: Kosar, Kevin R.
Description: This report provides an overview of the President's veto power, including regular vetoes and pocket vetoes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Regular Vetoes and Pocket Vetoes: In Brief

Regular Vetoes and Pocket Vetoes: In Brief

Date: June 9, 2015
Creator: Stuessy, Meghan M.
Description: This report presents information on the process by which Congress can override regular vetoes, the number of vetoes by each President, and the use of vetoes in relation to appropriations acts.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act: Legal Requirements for Federal and State Roles in Declarations of an Emergency or a Major Disaster

Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act: Legal Requirements for Federal and State Roles in Declarations of an Emergency or a Major Disaster

Date: September 16, 2005
Creator: Bazan, Elizabeth B
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Role of the President in Budget Development

The Role of the President in Budget Development

Date: April 27, 1999
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Role of the President in Budget Development

The Role of the President in Budget Development

Date: March 5, 2001
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Senate Action on U.S. Circuit and District Court Nominations During the Eighth Year of a Presidency

Senate Action on U.S. Circuit and District Court Nominations During the Eighth Year of a Presidency

Date: June 30, 2016
Creator: McMillion, Barry J.
Description: This report discusses the process by which lower federal court judges are nominated by the President and approved by the Senate during the final year of a presidency. The eighth year of a presidency is significant, in part, because it is the final opportunity for a President to appoint individuals as U.S. circuit and district court judges.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Senate Executive Business and the Executive Calendar

Senate Executive Business and the Executive Calendar

Date: May 19, 2008
Creator: Oleszek, Walter J.
Description: The Senate has responsibilities under both Article I (outlining legislative prerogatives) and Article II of the Constitution. As a result, the upper body handles legislative and executive business differently. This report discusses the Senate’s lawmaking responsibilities under Article I; executive business, which consists of treaties and nominations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Effects, and Process

Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Effects, and Process

Date: January 18, 2001
Creator: Gressle, Sharon S
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Effects, and Process

Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Effects, and Process

Date: November 8, 1999
Creator: Gressle, Sharon S
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Effects, and Process

Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Effects, and Process

Date: November 1, 2002
Creator: Gressle, Sharon S
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Effects, and Process

Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Effects, and Process

Date: October 7, 2002
Creator: Gressle, Sharon S
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Effects, and Process

Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Effects, and Process

Date: September 20, 2004
Creator: Kosar, Kevin R.
Description: This report provides a brief overview of the causes and effects of federal government shutdowns. This report provides a brief overview of the causes and effects of federal government shutdowns. When federal agencies and programs lack appropriated funding, they must cease operations, except in emergency situations. The failure of the President and Congress to reach agreement on funding measures has caused government shutdowns. It is necessary either to enact temporary funding legislation at the close of the fiscal year or to shut down the activities that are not funded at that time.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Social Security Financing

Social Security Financing

Date: January 25, 1983
Creator: Koitz, David Stuart; Kollmann, Geoffrey & Miller, Nancy
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Social Security Reform: Effect on Benefits and the Federal Budget of Plans Proposed by the President's Commission to Strengthen Social Security

Social Security Reform: Effect on Benefits and the Federal Budget of Plans Proposed by the President's Commission to Strengthen Social Security

Date: July 15, 2003
Creator: Nuschler, Dawn & Kollmann, Geoffrey
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Social Security: Report of the President's Commission to Strengthen Social Security

Social Security: Report of the President's Commission to Strengthen Social Security

Date: December 21, 2001
Creator: Nuschler, Dawn
Description: This report describes the Commission’s three reform plans. The first plan would make no other changes to the program. The second plan would slow the growth of Social Security through one major provision that would index initial benefits to prices rather than wages. The third plan would slow future program growth through a variety of measures.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Speed of Presidential and Senate Actions on Supreme Court Nominations, 1900-2005

Speed of Presidential and Senate Actions on Supreme Court Nominations, 1900-2005

Date: October 18, 2005
Creator: Garrett, R. Sam & Rutkus, Denis Steven
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Speed of Presidential and Senate Actions on Supreme Court Nominations, 1900-2005

Speed of Presidential and Senate Actions on Supreme Court Nominations, 1900-2005

Date: November 7, 2005
Creator: Garrett, R. Sam; Rutkus, Denis Steven & Copeland, Curtis W.
Description: This report provides information on the amount of time taken to act on all Supreme Court nominations occurring between 1900 and the present. It focuses on the actual amounts of time that Presidents and the Senate have taken to act (as opposed to the elapsed time between official points in the process).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Speed of Presidential and Senate Actions on Supreme Court Nominations, 1900 - 2009

Speed of Presidential and Senate Actions on Supreme Court Nominations, 1900 - 2009

Date: May 29, 2009
Creator: Garrett, R. Sam & Rutkus, Denis Steven
Description: This report provides information on the amount of time taken to act on all Supreme Court nominations occurring between 1900 and the present. It focuses on the actual amounts of time that Presidents and the Senate have taken to act (as opposed to the elapsed time between official points in the process). This report focuses on when the Senate became aware of the President's selection (e.g., via a public announcement by the President).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Speed of Presidential and Senate Actions on Supreme Court Nominations, 1900-2010

Speed of Presidential and Senate Actions on Supreme Court Nominations, 1900-2010

Date: August 6, 2010
Creator: Garrett, R. S. & Rutkus, Denis S.
Description: This report provides information on the amount of time taken to act on all Supreme Court nominations occurring between 1900 and the present. It focuses on the actual amounts of time that Presidents and the Senate have taken to act (as opposed to the elapsed time between official points in the process). This report focuses on when the Senate became aware of the President's selection (e.g., via a public announcement by the President).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department