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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The Electoral College: An Overview and Analysis of Reform Proposals

The Electoral College: An Overview and Analysis of Reform Proposals

Date: January 16, 2001
Creator: Whitaker, L. Paige & Neale, Thomas H
Description: Following the closely contested presidential election of 2000, it is anticipated that Congress may revisit the issue of Electoral College reform. Although some reforms could be effected through federal or state statutes, most would require overcoming the considerable hurdles encountered by proposed constitutional amendments: two-thirds approval by both houses of Congress, followed by ratification by three-fourths (38) of the states, usually within a period of seven years.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Election of the President and Vice President by Congress: Contingent Election

Election of the President and Vice President by Congress: Contingent Election

Date: January 17, 2001
Creator: Neale, Thomas H
Description: The 12th Amendment to the Constitution requires that candidates for President and Vice President receive a majority of electoral votes (currently 270 or more of a total of 538) to be elected. If no candidate receives a majority, the President is elected by the House of Representatives, and the Vice President is elected by the Senate. This process is referred to as contingent election and is the topic of discussion in this report.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Electoral College: How it Works in Contemporary Presidential Elections

The Electoral College: How it Works in Contemporary Presidential Elections

Date: January 17, 2001
Creator: Neale, Thomas H
Description: The Constitution assigns each state a number of electors equal to the combined total of the state’s Senate and House of Representatives delegations; at present, the number of electors per state ranges from three to 55, for a total of 538. This report discuses constitutional origins, the electoral college today and explains the allocation of electors and electoral votes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Effects, and Process

Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Effects, and Process

Date: January 18, 2001
Creator: Gressle, Sharon S
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congressional Overrides of Presidential Vetoes

Congressional Overrides of Presidential Vetoes

Date: January 29, 2001
Creator: Galemore, Gary L
Description: The President’s veto is effective not only in preventing the passage of legislation undesirable to the President, but also as a threat, sometimes forcing Congress to modify legislation before it is presented to the President. However, as a veto threat is carried out, Congress is faced with choices: letting the veto stand, the difficult task of overriding the veto, meeting the President’s objections and sending a new bill forward, or resubmitting the same provisions under a new bill number.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Presidential Veto and Congressional Procedure

The Presidential Veto and Congressional Procedure

Date: January 29, 2001
Creator: Galemore, Gary L
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Jonathan Pollard: Background and Considerations for Presidential Clemency

Jonathan Pollard: Background and Considerations for Presidential Clemency

Date: January 31, 2001
Creator: Best Jr., Richard A & Mark, Clyde R
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Vice Presidency: Evolution of the Modern Office, 1933-2001

The Vice Presidency: Evolution of the Modern Office, 1933-2001

Date: February 13, 2001
Creator: Relyea, Harold C
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Presidential and Vice Presidential Terms and Tenure

Presidential and Vice Presidential Terms and Tenure

Date: February 26, 2001
Creator: Neale, Thomas H
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals

Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals

Date: March 1, 2001
Creator: McMurtry, Virginia A
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department