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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Impeachment Grounds: Part I: Pre-Constitutional Convention Materials

Impeachment Grounds: Part I: Pre-Constitutional Convention Materials

Date: October 30, 1998
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Description: This report is a collection of selected background materials pertinent to the issue of what constitutes impeachable misconduct for purposes of Article II, section 4 of the United States Constitution quoted below. It includes excerpts from Blackstone, Wooddeson, and the impeachment clauses in pre-Constitutional Convention state constitutions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The New Vacancies Act: Congress Acts to Protect the Senate's Confirmation Prerogative

The New Vacancies Act: Congress Acts to Protect the Senate's Confirmation Prerogative

Date: November 2, 1998
Creator: Rosenberg, Morton
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Role of the President in Budget Development

The Role of the President in Budget Development

Date: April 27, 1999
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Policy Roles of the President and Congress

Foreign Policy Roles of the President and Congress

Date: June 1, 1999
Creator: Grimmett, Richard F.
Description: he United States Constitution divides foreign policy powers between the President and the Congress so that both share in the making of foreign policy. The executive and legislative branches each play important roles that are different but that often overlap. Both branches have continuing opportunities to initiate and change foreign policy, and the interaction between them continues indefinitely throughout the life of a policy. This report reviews and illustrates 12 basic ways that the United States can make foreign policy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Electoral College: How it Works in Contemporary Presidential Elections

The Electoral College: How it Works in Contemporary Presidential Elections

Date: July 21, 1999
Creator: Neale, Thomas H
Description: The Constitution assigns each state a number of electors equal to the combined total of the state’s Senate and House of Representatives delegations; at present, the number of electors per state ranges from three to 55, for a total of 538. This report discuses constitutional origins, the electoral college today and explains the allocation of electors and electoral votes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Election of the President and Vice President by Congress: Contingent Election

Election of the President and Vice President by Congress: Contingent Election

Date: August 16, 1999
Creator: Neale, Thomas H
Description: The 12th Amendment to the Constitution requires that candidates for President and Vice President receive a majority of electoral votes (currently 270 or more of a total of 538) to be elected. If no candidate receives a majority, the President is elected by the House of Representatives, and the Vice President is elected by the Senate. This process is referred to as contingent election and is the topic of discussion in this report.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Presidential Claims of Executive Privilege: History, Law, Practice and Recent Developments

Presidential Claims of Executive Privilege: History, Law, Practice and Recent Developments

Date: September 21, 1999
Creator: Rosenberg, Morton
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Effects, and Process

Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Effects, and Process

Date: November 8, 1999
Creator: Gressle, Sharon S
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
President Clinton's South Asia Trip

President Clinton's South Asia Trip

Date: March 31, 2000
Creator: LePoer, Barbara Leitch
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
National Monuments and the Antiquities Act

National Monuments and the Antiquities Act

Date: April 17, 2000
Creator: Hardy-Vincent, Carol & Baldwin, Pamela
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Presidential Elections in the United States: A Primer

Presidential Elections in the United States: A Primer

Date: April 17, 2000
Creator: Coleman, Kevin J; Cantor, Joseph E & Neale, Thomas H
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Presidential Authority to Create a National Monument on the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

Presidential Authority to Create a National Monument on the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

Date: June 19, 2000
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Authority of a President to Modify or Eliminate a National Monument

Authority of a President to Modify or Eliminate a National Monument

Date: August 3, 2000
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: President Clinton created a number of new national monuments, using authority given the President under the Antiquities Act of 1906. Many of the designations were controversial and renewed discussion of that Act and whether a President can modify or eliminate a Presidentially created national monument. This report examines that question.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals

Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals

Date: September 15, 2000
Creator: McMurtry, Virginia A
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
President Clinton's Vetoes

President Clinton's Vetoes

Date: October 7, 2000
Creator: Galemore, Gary L
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
President Clinton’s Vetoes

President Clinton’s Vetoes

Date: October 7, 2000
Creator: Galemore, Gary L.
Description: This report provides a table outlining the bills vetoed by President William Jefferson Clinton's two terms in office. It includes an overview and the bill number, date, title, and override attempts for each veto.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Executive Order 12919: Emergency Powers of the President

Executive Order 12919: Emergency Powers of the President

Date: October 23, 2000
Creator: Burdette, Robert B
Description: Executive Order 12919 concerns industrial preparedness during times of war and national emergency. This brief report uses simple language to describe what Executive Order 12919 does. It is intended to clarify common misunderstandings about the Order’s purpose and scope.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congressional Overrides of Presidential Vetoes

Congressional Overrides of Presidential Vetoes

Date: November 4, 2000
Creator: Galemore, Gary L
Description: The President’s veto is effective not only in preventing the passage of legislation undesirable to the President, but also as a threat, sometimes forcing Congress to modify legislation before it is presented to the President. However, as a veto threat is carried out, Congress is faced with choices: letting the veto stand, the difficult task of overriding the veto, meeting the President’s objections and sending a new bill forward, or resubmitting the same provisions under a new bill number.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Presidential Veto and Congressional Procedure

The Presidential Veto and Congressional Procedure

Date: November 4, 2000
Creator: Galemore, Gary L
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Presidential Vetoes, 1789-Present: A Summary Overview

Presidential Vetoes, 1789-Present: A Summary Overview

Date: November 4, 2000
Creator: Galemore, Gary L
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals

Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals

Date: November 20, 2000
Creator: McMurtry, Virginia A
Description: In recent years conflicting budget priorities and divided political control have accentuated the institutional tensions between the executive and legislative branches inherent in the federal budget process. President Clinton, like his two predecessors, called for an item veto, or possibly expanded impoundment authority, to provide him with greater control over federal spending. This report provides a brief history of impoundment and discusses the debate surrounding the line item veto.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
National Monuments and the Antiquities Act: Recent Designations and Issues

National Monuments and the Antiquities Act: Recent Designations and Issues

Date: January 15, 2001
Creator: Hardy-Vincent, Carol & Baldwin, Pamela
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Electoral College: An Overview and Analysis of Reform Proposals

The Electoral College: An Overview and Analysis of Reform Proposals

Date: January 16, 2001
Creator: Whitaker, L. Paige & Neale, Thomas H
Description: Following the closely contested presidential election of 2000, it is anticipated that Congress may revisit the issue of Electoral College reform. Although some reforms could be effected through federal or state statutes, most would require overcoming the considerable hurdles encountered by proposed constitutional amendments: two-thirds approval by both houses of Congress, followed by ratification by three-fourths (38) of the states, usually within a period of seven years.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Election of the President and Vice President by Congress: Contingent Election

Election of the President and Vice President by Congress: Contingent Election

Date: January 17, 2001
Creator: Neale, Thomas H
Description: The 12th Amendment to the Constitution requires that candidates for President and Vice President receive a majority of electoral votes (currently 270 or more of a total of 538) to be elected. If no candidate receives a majority, the President is elected by the House of Representatives, and the Vice President is elected by the Senate. This process is referred to as contingent election and is the topic of discussion in this report.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department