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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Federal Recess Judges

Federal Recess Judges

Date: February 2, 2005
Creator: Fisher, Louis
Description: This report discusses the recess clause and takes a look at the history of recess appointments. Under Article II of the Constitution, the President is empowered "to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session." Presidents have used the recess appointment power on more than 300 occasions to place judges on the district, appellate, and U.S. Supreme Court level. This practice slowed after the 1950s, but recent recess appointments to federal appellate courts (the Fourth, Fifth, and Eleventh Circuits) have revived a number of constitutional issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Independent Bids for President

Independent Bids for President

Date: January 6, 2016
Creator: unknown
Description: This report briefly discusses legal and practical obstacles for candidates pursuing an independent run for the presidency after participating in the nomination process of a major political party--including competing in state primaries and caucuses for delegates to the party's national nominating convention.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals

Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals

Date: November 22, 2004
Creator: McMurtry, Virginia A.
Description: This report provides a brief history of impoundment and discusses the debate surrounding the line item veto, particularly in relation to federal spending and the budget process.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Effects, and Process

Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Effects, and Process

Date: September 20, 2004
Creator: Kosar, Kevin R.
Description: This report provides a brief overview of the causes and effects of federal government shutdowns. This report provides a brief overview of the causes and effects of federal government shutdowns. When federal agencies and programs lack appropriated funding, they must cease operations, except in emergency situations. The failure of the President and Congress to reach agreement on funding measures has caused government shutdowns. It is necessary either to enact temporary funding legislation at the close of the fiscal year or to shut down the activities that are not funded at that time.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Presidential Directives: Background and Overview

Presidential Directives: Background and Overview

Date: November 26, 2008
Creator: Relyea, Harold C.
Description: This report provides an overview of the different kinds of directives that have been utilized primarily by twentieth century Presidents. It presents background on their historical development, accounting, use, and effect.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
President Clinton’s Vetoes

President Clinton’s Vetoes

Date: October 7, 2000
Creator: Galemore, Gary L.
Description: This report provides a table outlining the bills vetoed by President William Jefferson Clinton's two terms in office. It includes an overview and the bill number, date, title, and override attempts for each veto.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Presidential Appointments to Full-Time Positions in Independent and Other Agencies During the 112th Congress

Presidential Appointments to Full-Time Positions in Independent and Other Agencies During the 112th Congress

Date: January 13, 2015
Creator: Greene, Michael
Description: This report identifies, for the 112th Congress, all nominations to full-time positions requiring Senate confirmation in 40 organizations in the executive branch (27 independent agencies, 6 agencies in the Executive Office of the President [EOP], and 7 multilateral organizations) and 4 agencies in the legislative branc
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Speed of Presidential and Senate Actions on Supreme Court Nominations, 1900-2005

Speed of Presidential and Senate Actions on Supreme Court Nominations, 1900-2005

Date: November 7, 2005
Creator: Garrett, R. Sam; Rutkus, Denis Steven & Copeland, Curtis W.
Description: This report provides information on the amount of time taken to act on all Supreme Court nominations occurring between 1900 and the present. It focuses on the actual amounts of time that Presidents and the Senate have taken to act (as opposed to the elapsed time between official points in the process).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
President of the United States: Compensation

President of the United States: Compensation

Date: August 6, 2008
Creator: Schwemle, Barbara L.
Description: This report discusses the President’s compensation and the three most recent increases to the salary enacted in 1949 (81st Congress), 1969 (91st Congress), and 1999 (106th Congress).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The President’s Reorganization Authority: Review and Analysis

The President’s Reorganization Authority: Review and Analysis

Date: March 8, 2001
Creator: Moe, Ronald C.
Description: This report addresses three specific issues: (1) the historical basis and use of the President’s reorganization authority; (2) the factors contributing to the lapse of the President’s reorganization authority in 1984,1 and (3) thoughts on the future of reorganization in the executive branch.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Evolution of the Senate's Role in the Nomination and Confirmation Process: A Brief History

Evolution of the Senate's Role in the Nomination and Confirmation Process: A Brief History

Date: July 2, 2008
Creator: Palmer, Betsy
Description: This report discusses the process of Advice and Consent in the Senate. Article II, Section 2 of the Constitution states that the President "shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other Public Ministers and Counsels, Judges of the Supreme Court, and all Other Officers of the United States, whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by law…."
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Presidential Records: Issues for the 111th Congress

Presidential Records: Issues for the 111th Congress

Date: February 17, 2009
Creator: Ginsberg, Wendy R.
Description: This report analyzes President Barack Obama's first executive order (E.O. 13489), which rescinded E.O. 13233, and discusses its departure from the policies of the previous administration. Additionally, this report examines H.R. 35 and its possible legislative effects on the presidential records policies of the Obama Administration.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Recess Appointments Made by President George W. Bush, January 20, 2001- October 31, 2008

Recess Appointments Made by President George W. Bush, January 20, 2001- October 31, 2008

Date: November 3, 2008
Creator: Hogue, Henry B. & Bearden, Maureen
Description: This report identifies recess appointments made by President George W. Bush from the time he took office on January 20, 2001, through October 31, 2008. Basic descriptive statistics regarding these appointments are also provided.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Presidential Claims of Executive Privilege: History, Law, Practice and Recent Developments

Presidential Claims of Executive Privilege: History, Law, Practice and Recent Developments

Date: August 21, 2008
Creator: Rosenberg, Morton
Description: This report discusses the background of claims of executive privilege, a right to preserve the confidentiality of information and documents in the face of legislative demands, ending with a look into how President George W. Bush has used them.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Presidential Vetoes of Annual Defense Authorization Bills

Presidential Vetoes of Annual Defense Authorization Bills

Date: October 1, 2015
Creator: Towell, Pat
Description: This report briefly discusses the historical precedent of Defense Secretary Ashton B. Carter's recommendation that President Obama veto the conference report on H.R. 1735, the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for FY2016. If Obama were to veto the measure, it would mark the fifth time since 1961 that a president has vetoed that measure.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Presidential Nominating Process and the National Party Conventions, 2016: Frequently Asked Questions

The Presidential Nominating Process and the National Party Conventions, 2016: Frequently Asked Questions

Date: December 30, 2015
Creator: Coleman, Kevin J.
Description: This report provides answers to frequently asked questions about the presidential nominating process, including how the delegates to the national conventions are chosen, the differences between a caucus and a primary, national party rules changes for 2016, and the national conventions themselves.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Presidential Transitions: Issues Involving Outgoing and Incoming Administrations

Presidential Transitions: Issues Involving Outgoing and Incoming Administrations

Date: October 23, 2008
Creator: Halchin, L. E.
Description: This report discusses the issues involving transfer of power from one administration to the other. The smooth and orderly transfer of power can be a notable feature of presidential transitions, and a testament to the legitimacy and durability of the electoral and democratic processes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Temporarily Filling Presidentially Appointed, Senate-Confirmed Positions

Temporarily Filling Presidentially Appointed, Senate-Confirmed Positions

Date: November 10, 2015
Creator: Hogue, Henry B.
Description: This report examines several authorities by which a vacant presidentially appointed, Senate-confirmed position can be filled temporarily without going through the Senate confirmation process..
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Stafford Act Disaster Assistance: Presidential Declarations, Eligible Activities, and Funding

Federal Stafford Act Disaster Assistance: Presidential Declarations, Eligible Activities, and Funding

Date: August 15, 2008
Creator: Bea, Keith
Description: This report discusses the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (the Stafford Act) that authorizes the President to issue major disaster, emergency, and fire management declarations, which in turn enable federal agencies to provide assistance to state and local governments overwhelmed by catastrophes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Mid-Session Review of the President's Budget: Timing Issues

The Mid-Session Review of the President's Budget: Timing Issues

Date: August 19, 2008
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: This report provides information on the timing of submission of the mid-session review for FY1980-FY2009, a 30-year period that covers all or part of the administrations of five Presidents, applying to the last two years of the Carter Administration, and the full terms of the Reagan, George H. W. Bush, Clinton, and George W. Bush Administrations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Executive Branch Reorganization and Management Initiatives: A Brief Overview

Executive Branch Reorganization and Management Initiatives: A Brief Overview

Date: July 23, 2008
Creator: Relyea, Harold C.
Description: This report provides a brief overview of recent executive branch reorganization actions and related management initiatives. It reviews the relevant plans and preparations of President-elect Barack Obama as the new Administration transitions to assuming management of the executive branch. Briefly examined, as well, are the organization and management efforts of the most recent regimes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Presidential Permit Review for Cross-Border Pipelines and Electric Transmission

Presidential Permit Review for Cross-Border Pipelines and Electric Transmission

Date: August 6, 2015
Creator: Luther, Linda & Parfomak, Paul W.
Description: This report focuses on the Presidential Permit review processes for cross-border energy infrastructure as implemented by the Department of State, The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), and The Department of Energy (DOE). These permits have been required for the construction, connection, operation, and maintenance of certain facilities that cross the United States borders with Canada and Mexico.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Presidential Advisers' Testimony Before Congressional Committees: An Overview

Presidential Advisers' Testimony Before Congressional Committees: An Overview

Date: July 16, 2008
Creator: Relyea, Harold C. & Tatelman, Todd B.
Description: This report discusses the executive office of the President, presidential adviser growth, and presidential advisers' testimony.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
VH-71 Presidential Helicopter Program

VH-71 Presidential Helicopter Program

Date: March 5, 2009
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher
Description: This report discusses VH-71 presidential helicopter, which has experienced noteworthy cost increases and schedule delays, which have generated controversy and scrutiny. The VH-71 is intended to replace the President's current operational fleet of helicopters, consisting of 11 VH-3D Sea Kings and 8 VH-60N Night Hawks.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department