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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Year: 2006
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Recess Appointments: Frequently Asked Questions

Recess Appointments: Frequently Asked Questions

Date: August 25, 2006
Creator: Hogue, Henry B.
Description: This report supplies brief answers to some frequently asked questions regarding recess appointments. When the Senate is in recess, the President may make a temporary appointment, called a recess appointment, to any such position without Senate approval (Article II, Section 2, Clause 3).
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Direct Assaults Against Presidents, Presidents-Elect, and Candidates

Direct Assaults Against Presidents, Presidents-Elect, and Candidates

Date: April 5, 2006
Creator: Kaiser, Frederick M
Description: Direct assaults against Presidents, Presidents-elect, and candidates have occurred on 15 separate occasions, with five resulting in death. Ten incumbents (about 24% of the 42 individuals to serve in the office), including four of the past six Presidents, have been victims or targets. Four of the ten (and one candidate) died as a result of the attacks. This report identifies these incidents and provides information about what happened, when, where, and, if known, why.
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The Advisory Panel's Tax Reform Proposals

The Advisory Panel's Tax Reform Proposals

Date: July 13, 2006
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.
Description: In early 2005, the President appointed a tax reform advisory panel to formulate tax reform proposals. The report of the President’s Advisory Panel on Tax Reform, issued in November 2005, recommended two reform plans to consider: 1) a revised income tax, referred to as the simplified income tax (SIT); and 2) a consumption tax coupled with a tax on financial income, referred to as the growth and investment tax (GIT). This report discusses the provisions and implications of these two taxes in detail.
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S. 3521, the Stop Over Spending Act of 2006: A Brief Summary

S. 3521, the Stop Over Spending Act of 2006: A Brief Summary

Date: July 14, 2006
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr.
Description: S. 3521, the Stop Over Spending Act of 2006, proposes several changes to the congressional budget process. This report provides a brief summary of the major provisions of S. 3521.
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Supreme Court Nominations, 1789 - 2005: Actions by the Senate, the Judiciary Committee, and the President

Supreme Court Nominations, 1789 - 2005: Actions by the Senate, the Judiciary Committee, and the President

Date: January 5, 2006
Creator: Rutkus, Denis Steven & Bearden, Maureen
Description: The process of appointing Supreme Court Justices has undergone changes over two centuries, but its most basic feature -- the sharing of power between the President and Senate -- has remained unchanged. To receive a lifetime appointment to the Court, a candidate must first be nominated by the President and then confirmed by the Senate. Table 1 of this report lists and describes actions taken by the Senate, the Senate Judiciary Committee, and the President on all Supreme Court nominations, from 1789 to the present. The table provides the name of each person nominated to the Court and the name of the President making the nomination. It also tracks the dates of formal actions taken, and time elapsing between these actions, by the Senate or Senate Judiciary Committee on each nomination, starting with the date that the Senate received the nomination from the President.
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Supreme Court Nominations, 1789-2005: Actions by the Senate, the Judiciary Committee, and the President

Supreme Court Nominations, 1789-2005: Actions by the Senate, the Judiciary Committee, and the President

Date: January 5, 2006
Creator: Rutkus, Denis Steven & Bearden, Maureen
Description: None
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National Emergency Powers

National Emergency Powers

Date: May 1, 2006
Creator: Relyea, Harold C
Description: This report the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1601-1651) that eliminated or modified some statutory grants of emergency authority, required the President to declare formally the existence of a national emergency and to specify what statutory authority, activated by the declaration, would be used, and provided Congress a means to countermand the President's declaration and the activated authority being sought.
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National Emergency Powers

National Emergency Powers

Date: February 10, 2006
Creator: Relyea, Harold C
Description: This report the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1601-1651) that eliminated or modified some statutory grants of emergency authority, required the President to declare formally the existence of a national emergency and to specify what statutory authority, activated by the declaration, would be used, and provided Congress a means to countermand the President's declaration and the activated authority being sought.
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Authorization for Use of Military Force in Response to the 9/11 Attacks (P.L. 107-40): Legislative History

Authorization for Use of Military Force in Response to the 9/11 Attacks (P.L. 107-40): Legislative History

Date: January 4, 2006
Creator: Grimmett, Richard F
Description: This report provides a legislative history of the legislation, S.J.Res. 23 , the “Authorization for Use of Military Force” (AUMF), which, as Congress stated in its text, constitutes the legislative authorization for the use of U.S. military force contemplated by the War Powers Resolution. It also is the statute which the President and his attorneys have subsequently cited as an authority for him to engage in electronic surveillance against possible terrorists without obtaining authorization of the special Court created by the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) of 1978, as amended.
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Supreme Court Nominations, 1789-2005: Actions by the Senate, Judiciary Committee, and the President

Supreme Court Nominations, 1789-2005: Actions by the Senate, Judiciary Committee, and the President

Date: January 5, 2006
Creator: Rutkus, Denis Steven & Bearden, Maureen
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance

War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance

Date: July 11, 2006
Creator: Grimmett, Richard F.
Description: Two separate but closely related issues confront Congress each time the President introduces armed forces into a situation abroad that conceivably could lead to their involvement in hostilities. One issue concerns the division of war powers between the President and Congress, whether the use of armed forces falls within the purview of the congressional power to declare war and the War Powers Resolution. The other issue is whether or not Congress concurs in the wisdom of the action. A longer-term issue is whether the War Powers Resolution is an appropriate and effective means of assuring congressional participation in actions that might get the United States involved in war.
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War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance

War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance

Date: April 5, 2006
Creator: Grimmett, Richard F
Description: None
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War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance

War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance

Date: July 11, 2006
Creator: Grimmett, Richard F
Description: None
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War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance

War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance

Date: February 14, 2006
Creator: Grimmett, Richard F
Description: None
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The Group of Eight Summits: Evolution and Possible Reform

The Group of Eight Summits: Evolution and Possible Reform

Date: March 17, 2006
Creator: Weiss, Martin A
Description: This report discusses the Group of Eight (G8) summit, which is a forum to informally discuss and create policies on major foreign policy issues among the heads of state of the United States, France, Germany, Canada, Italy, the United Kingdom, Japan, and Russia.
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Declarations of War and Authorizations for the Use of Military Force: Historical Background and Legal Implications

Declarations of War and Authorizations for the Use of Military Force: Historical Background and Legal Implications

Date: August 11, 2006
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer K & Grimmett, Richard F
Description: This report provides historical background on the enactment of declarations of war and authorizations for the use of force and analyzes their legal effects under international and domestic law. It also sets forth their texts in two appendices. Because the statutes that confer standby authority on the President and the executive branch potentially play such a large role in an armed conflict to which the United States is a party, the report includes an extensive listing and summary of the statutes that are triggered by a declaration of war, a declaration of national emergency, and/or the existence of a state of war. The report concludes with a summary of the Congressional procedures applicable to the enactment of a declaration of war or authorization for the use of force and to measures under the War Powers Resolution.
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Declarations of War and Authorizations for the Use of Military Force: Historical Background and Legal Implications

Declarations of War and Authorizations for the Use of Military Force: Historical Background and Legal Implications

Date: August 11, 2006
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer K & Grimmett, Richard F
Description: This report provides historical background on the enactment of declarations of war and authorizations for the use of force and analyzes their legal effects under international and domestic law. It also sets forth their texts in two appendices. Because the statutes that confer standby authority on the President and the executive branch potentially play such a large role in an armed conflict to which the United States is a party, the report includes an extensive listing and summary of the statutes that are triggered by a declaration of war, a declaration of national emergency, and/or the existence of a state of war. The report concludes with a summary of the Congressional procedures applicable to the enactment of a declaration of war or authorization for the use of force and to measures under the War Powers Resolution.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Declarations of War and Authorizations for the Use of Military Force: Historical Background and Legal Implications

Declarations of War and Authorizations for the Use of Military Force: Historical Background and Legal Implications

Date: August 11, 2006
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer K. & Grimmett, Richard F.
Description: This report provides historical background on the enactment of declarations of war and authorizations for the use of force and analyzes their legal effects under international and domestic law. It also sets forth their texts in two appendices. Because the statutes that confer standby authority on the President and the executive branch potentially play such a large role in an armed conflict to which the United States is a party, the report includes an extensive listing and summary of the statutes that are triggered by a declaration of war, a declaration of national emergency, and/or the existence of a state of war. The report concludes with a summary of the congressional procedures applicable to the enactment of a declaration of war or authorization for the use of force and to measures under the War Powers Resolution.
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Federal Stafford Act Disaster Assistance: Presidential Declarations, Eligible Activities, and Funding

Federal Stafford Act Disaster Assistance: Presidential Declarations, Eligible Activities, and Funding

Date: April 28, 2006
Creator: Bea, Keith
Description: This report discusses the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (the Stafford Act), which authorizes the President to issue major disaster or emergency declarations in response to catastrophes that overwhelm state and local governments.
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Presidential Signing Statements: Constitutional and Institutional Implications

Presidential Signing Statements: Constitutional and Institutional Implications

Date: September 20, 2006
Creator: Halstead, T.J.
Description: None
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The World Trade Organization: The Hong Kong Ministerial

The World Trade Organization: The Hong Kong Ministerial

Date: January 20, 2006
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F; Cooper, William H; Jones, Vivian C; Langton, Danielle; Hanrahan, Charles E; Fletcher, Susan R et al.
Description: The World Trade Organization (WTO) held its 6th Ministerial summit in Hong Kong from December 13-18, 2005. WTO Ministerials are held every two years to bring together trade ministers from member states, often to make political decisions for the body. Although an original goal of the Ministerial was to agree on a package of modalities (methods by which the round is negotiated) for the ongoing Doha Development Agenda (DDA) round of trade negotiations, this aim was dropped in order to avoid a high-profile failure similar to previous Ministerials at Cancun and Seattle. Rather, members agreed to some modest advancements in agriculture, industrial tariffs, and duty and quota-free access for least developed countries. The final outcome of these negotiations could provide a substantial boost to the world economy, but if the round itself is not completed, there may be repercussions for the WTO as an institution and for the architecture of the world trading system.
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The World Trade Organization: The Hong Kong Ministerial

The World Trade Organization: The Hong Kong Ministerial

Date: January 20, 2006
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F; Cooper, William H; Jones, Vivian C; Langton, Danielle; Hanrahan, Charles E; Fletcher, Susan R et al.
Description: The World Trade Organization (WTO) held its 6th Ministerial summit in Hong Kong from December 13-18, 2005. WTO Ministerials are held every two years to bring together trade ministers from member states, often to make political decisions for the body. Although an original goal of the Ministerial was to agree on a package of modalities (methods by which the round is negotiated) for the ongoing Doha Development Agenda (DDA) round of trade negotiations, this aim was dropped in order to avoid a high-profile failure similar to previous Ministerials at Cancun and Seattle. Rather, members agreed to some modest advancements in agriculture, industrial tariffs, and duty and quota-free access for least developed countries. The final outcome of these negotiations could provide a substantial boost to the world economy, but if the round itself is not completed, there may be repercussions for the WTO as an institution and for the architecture of the world trading system.
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War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance

War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance

Date: July 11, 2006
Creator: Grimmett, Richard F
Description: None
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Line Item Veto: A Constitutional Analysis of Recent Proposals

Line Item Veto: A Constitutional Analysis of Recent Proposals

Date: April 17, 2006
Creator: Rosenberg, Morton
Description: This report discusses the Legislative Line Item Veto and its constitutional issues and the President’s rescission proposals must be enacted by both Houses and signed into law.
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