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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Social Unrest in China
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9231/
The School Prayer Controversy: Pro-Con Arguments
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9581/
Protection of Classified Information by Congress: Practices and Proposals
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8133/
The Department of Defense Rules for Military Commissions: Analysis of Procedural Rules and Comparison with Proposed Legislation and the Uniform Code of Military Justice
This report provides a background and analysis comparing military commissions as envisioned under M.C.O. No. 1 to general military courts-martial conducted under the UCMJ. The report notes some of the criticism directed at the President’s M.O., and explains how those concerns are addressed by the military commission orders and instructions. The report provides two charts to compare the regulations issued by the Department of Defense and standard procedures for general courts-martial under the Manual for Courts-Martial. The second chart, which compares procedural safeguards incorporated in the regulations with established procedures in courts martial, follows the same order and format used in CRS Report RL31262, Selected Procedural Safeguards in Federal, Military, and International Courts, in order to facilitate comparison with safeguards provided in federal court and the International Criminal Court. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9344/
527 Organizations: Reporting Requirements Imposed on Political Organizations after the Enactment of P.L. 106-230
On July 1, 2000, President Clinton signed H.R. 4762, P.L. 106-230. The law amended the Internal Revenue Code [IRC] to require political organizations described in IRC § 527 to disclose their political activities, if they were not already required to do so by the Federal Election Campaign Act [FECA]. This report summarizes the three major changes made by the law and some of the major responses to the legislation. First, all 527 organizations which expect to have over $25,000 in gross receipts during a taxable year and which are not required to report to the Federal Election Commission [FEC] are required to register with the IRS within 24 hours of their formation, whether they are involved in state, local, or federal elections. Second, 527 issue advocacy organizations, which previously reported neither to the IRS nor the FEC, are required to file regular disclosure statements with the IRS. Third, all 527 organizations with gross receipts in excess of $25,000 per year are required to file annual reports with the IRS. The registration statements, disclosure forms, and annual reports will be made public. H.R. 527 and S. 527 in the 107th Congress would exempt most state and local 527 organizations from the requirements of P.L. 106-230. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1965/
Banking Acquisition and Merger Procedures
This report discusses in general terms the basic process and time line for banking industry acquisitions and mergers and briefly discusses the May 4, 1998 application by Travelers Group to merge with Citicorp. Among the issues discussed are: potential impact on consumers; whether the new entities would be too big to fail; and, whether competitive equity calls for financial modernization legislation with functional regulation of the securities, banking, and insurance sectors of companies offering customers a full range of financial products and services. Legislative developments on financial modernization issues in the 105th Congress are reported in CRS Issue Brief 97034, which is available on the Legislative Information System. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs686/
Environmental Reauthorizations and Regulatory Reform: From the 104th Congress to the 105th
The 104th Congress pursued efforts to reform environmental regulations on several fronts: (1) revising regulatory decision making processes; (2) attaching specific reforms to funding bills; (3) establishing a House corrections day calendar of bills addressing specific regulatory problems; and (4) incorporating regulatory reforms into individual program reauthorization bills. The 105th Congress has pursued regulatory reform in four primary directions: (1) proposals to establish a comprehensive cost-benefit/risk analysis framework for regulatory programs, (2) private property “takings” initiatives, (3) amendments and reforms directed at individual environmental statutes, and (4) oversight of environmental programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs645/
Public Relations and Propaganda: Restrictions on Executive Agency Activities
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6292/
Public Relations and Propaganda: Restrictions on Executive Agency Activities
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6291/
Public Relations and Propaganda: Restrictions on Executive Agency Activities
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6293/
Iraq: International Support for U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs696/
Lobbying Congress: An Overview of Legal Provisions and Congressional Ethics Rules
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1903/
Protection of Classified Information by Congress: Practices and Proposals
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6259/
Bolivia: Political and Economic Developments and Implications for U.S. Policy
Bolivia is one of the poorest countries in Latin America with an ethnically diverse population. It has a long history of political instability that persists to this day. It is also highly politically polarized over such issues as the future of oil and gas exploration and production, coca eradication programs, and calls for regional autonomy and constitutional reform from some parts of the country. U.S. interest in Bolivia centers on its role as a coca producer, and its relationship to Colombia and Peru, the two other major coca- and cocaine-producing countries. This report goes into greater detail concerning the Bolivia's current political conditions, as well as Bolivia's relationship with the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10209/
Protection of Classified Information by Congress: Practices and Proposals
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8779/
Turkey: Background and U.S. Relations
Report that provides background information on Turkey and discusses possible policy options for Members of Congress and the Obama Administration. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227678/
Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses
Report that discusses the effects of economic sanctions against Iran, support to the Iranian democracy movement, and opposition against Iranian human rights violations and Iranian support for Syrian human rights violations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227605/
U.S.-Vietnam Relations in 2013: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy
Report that discusses the diplomatic relation between United States and Vietnam that was established in 1995. Topics include issues U.S. and Vietnamese interest, economic ties, and human rights. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227636/
Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses the political structure, reform efforts, and human rights issues in Bahrain. It also discusses the U.S.-Bahrain security and foreign policy relations as well as Bahrain's economic ties with the United States and Saudi Arabia. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227607/
Kazakhstan: Recent Developments and U.S. Interests
Report that discusses the current political conditions of Kazakhstan, as well as U.S. policy interests regarding Kazakhstan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227616/
U.S. Nuclear Cooperation with India: Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9821/
U.S. Nuclear Cooperation with India: Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9820/
Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations
This report provides an overview of Egyptian politics and current issues in U.S.-Egyptian relations. It briefly provides a political history of modern Egypt, an overview of its political institutions, and a discussion of the prospects for democratization in Egypt, U.S.-Egyptian relations are complex and multi-faceted, and this report addresses the following current topics: the Arab-Israeli peace process, Iraq, terrorism, democratization and reform, human rights, trade, and military cooperation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9721/
The Department of Defense Rules for Military Commissions: Analysis of Procedural Rules and Comparison with Proposed Legislation and the Uniform Code of Military Justice
This report provides a background and analysis comparing military commissions as envisioned under M.C.O. No. 1 to general military courts-martial conducted under the UCMJ. The report notes some of the criticism directed at the President’s M.O., and explains how those concerns are addressed by the military commission orders and instructions. The report provides two charts to compare the regulations issued by the Department of Defense and standard procedures for general courts-martial under the Manual for Courts-Martial. The second chart, which compares procedural safeguards incorporated in the regulations with established procedures in courts martial, follows the same order and format used in CRS Report RL31262, Selected Procedural Safeguards in Federal, Military, and International Courts, in order to facilitate comparison with safeguards provided in federal court and the International Criminal Court. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9302/
Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations
This report provides an overview of Egyptian politics and current issues in U.S.-Egyptian relations. It briefly provides a political history of modern Egypt, an overview of its political institutions, and a discussion of the prospects for democratization in Egypt, U.S.-Egyptian relations are complex and multi-faceted, and this report addresses the following current topics: the Arab-Israeli peace process, Iraq, terrorism, democratization and reform, human rights, trade, and military cooperation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9939/
Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations
This report provides an overview of Egyptian politics and current issues in U.S.-Egyptian relations. It briefly provides a political history of modern Egypt, an overview of its political institutions, and a discussion of the prospects for democratization in Egypt, U.S.-Egyptian relations are complex and multi-faceted, and this report addresses the following current topics: the Arab-Israeli peace process, Iraq, terrorism, democratization and reform, human rights, trade, and military cooperation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9818/
Political Action Committees: Their Evolution, Growth and Implications for the Political System
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9181/
English as the Official Language of the United States: An Overview
This report provides background on contemporary efforts to declare English the official language, a review of selected issues raised by official English proposals in Congress, and a summary of arguments that have been advanced in favor of and in opposition to such proposals. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs403/
The Department of Defense Rules for Military Commissions: Analysis of Procedural Rules and Comparison with Proposed Legislation and the Uniform Code of Military Justice
This report provides a background and analysis comparing military commissions as envisioned under M.C.O. No. 1 to general military courts-martial conducted under the UCMJ. The report notes some of the criticism directed at the President’s M.O., and explains how those concerns are addressed by the military commission orders and instructions. The report provides two charts to compare the regulations issued by the Department of Defense and standard procedures for general courts-martial under the Manual for Courts-Martial. The second chart, which compares procedural safeguards incorporated in the regulations with established procedures in courts martial, follows the same order and format used in CRS Report RL31262, Selected Procedural Safeguards in Federal, Military, and International Courts, in order to facilitate comparison with safeguards provided in federal court and the International Criminal Court. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9297/
The School Prayer Controversy: Pro-Con Arguments
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9575/
Business and Labor Spending in U.S. Elections
Federal election law has long prohibited corporate and union spending in federal elections, but distinctions in statutes and judicial rulings have opened avenues by which these groups have been able to spend money in the electoral process. Business groups make particular use of political action committee (PAC) donations to candidates and soft money donations to parties. Unions made prominent use of issue advocacy in 1996, but labor’s political strength lies in exempt activity communications with members. This report explains these tools and their use in today’s elections. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs468/
Egypt in Crisis: Issues for Congress
This report provides a brief overview of the key issues for the 113th Congress related to Egypt. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227908/
U.S.-Kenya Relations: Current Political and Security Issues
This report provides background information regarding on political and security situation in Kenya. The report discusses U.S.-Kenya relations, as U.S. government views Kenya as a strategic partner and anchor state in East Africa, and as critical to counterterrorism efforts in the region. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227850/
Human Rights in China and U.S. Policy: Issues for the 113th Congress
Report that examines human rights issues in the People's Republic of China (PRC), including ongoing rights abuses, legal reforms, and the development of civil society. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227854/
Mexico's Peña Nieto Administration: Priorities and Key Issues in U.S.-Mexican Relations
This report provides an introduction of Mexico during Peña Nieto administration. The report discusses key issues of congressional interest in the bilateral relationship. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227844/
Afghanistan: Connections to Islamic Movements In Central and South Asia and Southern Russia
After several years of relative peace in Central Asia and southern Russia, Islamic extremist movements have become more active in Russia and in Central and South Asia, threatening stability in the region. Although numerous factors might account for the upsurge in activity, several of these movements appear to have connections to the Islamic fundamentalist Taliban regime in Afghanistan. These linkages raise questions about whether the United States, as part of a broader effort to promote peace and stability in the region, should continue to engage the Taliban regime, or strongly confront it. This report will be updated as events warrant. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7705/
The Law of Church and State: Selected Opinions of Justice O'Connor
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7767/
Islamist Extremism in Europe
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7768/
Public Relations and Propaganda: Restrictions on Executive Agency Activities
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7180/
Government-Sposored Enterprises (GSEs): Regulatory Reform Legislation
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7895/
Government-Sposored Enterprises (GSEs): Regulatory Reform Legislation
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7896/
Assistance to Afghan and Iraqi Women: Issues for Congress
This report reviews the U.S.-sponsored funding and programs directed toward women and children in Afghanistan and Iraq. The national and international response to the plight of Afghan and Iraqi women, even to their most recent experience under the Taliban in Afghanistan or Baathist regime in Iraq, will impact their future role and the long-term developments in each country, such as the implementation of a new constitution, the incorporation of women in local and national governance, the role of Islam and the state, the growth of the economy, the curbing of security concerns, and the role of U.S. and international assistance. This report will be updated as events warrant. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7722/
GSE Reform: A New Affordable Housing Fund
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7981/
Lobbying Regulations on Non-Profit Organizations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs758/
Lobbying Regulations on Non-Profit Organizations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3301/
Legislative Research in Congressional Offices: A Primer
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs349/
War in Afghanistan: Campaign Progress, Political Strategy, and Issues for Congress
This report describes the current strategic context, the state of the campaign, next steps in the campaign, and what it would take to make campaign gains sustainable; and it offers questions that may be of help to Congress in providing oversight of further U.S. efforts in Afghanistan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227916/
Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights
This report discusses Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights. Relations among major political factions have worsened substantially since late 2011, threatening Iraq's stability and the perception of the achievements of the long U.S. intervention in Iraq. Sunni Arabs, always fearful that Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki would seek unchallenged power for Shiite factions allied with him, accuse him of an outright power grab as he seeks to purge the highest-ranking Sunni Arabs from government and to cripple attempts by Sunni-inhabited provinces to achieve greater autonomy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86671/
Libya: Transition and U.S. Policy
This report discusses the revolution and current conflict in Libya. The current crisis was triggered in mid-February 2011 by a chain of events in Benghazi and other eastern cities that quickly spiraled out of Qadhafi's control. Although Libyan opposition groups had called for a so-called "day of rage" on February 17 to commemorate protests that had occurred five years earlier, localized violence erupted prior to the planned national protests. As of April 25, U.S. and coalition officials stated that coalition military operations had destroyed the ability of the Libyan military to control Libyan airspace and had reduced the capability of Libyan ground forces by roughly 30%-40%. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86648/
Congressional Oversight of Intelligence: Current Structure and Alternatives
This report, to be updated as events dictate, describes the current select committees on intelligence; characteristics and a model for a possible joint committee; recent actions by Congress; and obstacles affecting legislative oversight in the field. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86646/