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 Decade: 1990-1999
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Electricity Restructuring Background: Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 (PUHCA)

Electricity Restructuring Background: Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 (PUHCA)

Date: January 7, 1999
Creator: Abel, Amy
Description: This report provides background information on PUHCA, including its history and impact. It also discusses how PUHCA reform fits into the current electric utility industry restructuring debate. This report will be updated as events warrant. For related information on electricity restructuring, see the CRS Electronic Briefing Book.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
English as the Official Language of the United States: An Overview

English as the Official Language of the United States: An Overview

Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: Aleman, Steven R; Bruno, Andorra & Dale, Charles V
Description: This report provides background on contemporary efforts to declare English the official language, a review of selected issues raised by official English proposals in Congress, and a summary of arguments that have been advanced in favor of and in opposition to such proposals.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Intersection Between the Former Presidents Act and the Impeachment Process

The Intersection Between the Former Presidents Act and the Impeachment Process

Date: June 5, 1998
Creator: Bazan, Elizabeth B
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Environmental Reauthorizations and Regulatory Reform: From the 104th Congress to the 105th

Environmental Reauthorizations and Regulatory Reform: From the 104th Congress to the 105th

Date: February 10, 1998
Creator: Blodgett, John E
Description: The 104th Congress pursued efforts to reform environmental regulations on several fronts: (1) revising regulatory decision making processes; (2) attaching specific reforms to funding bills; (3) establishing a House corrections day calendar of bills addressing specific regulatory problems; and (4) incorporating regulatory reforms into individual program reauthorization bills. The 105th Congress has pursued regulatory reform in four primary directions: (1) proposals to establish a comprehensive cost-benefit/risk analysis framework for regulatory programs, (2) private property “takings” initiatives, (3) amendments and reforms directed at individual environmental statutes, and (4) oversight of environmental programs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Research and Development in Russia: An Important Factor for the Future

Research and Development in Russia: An Important Factor for the Future

Date: August 24, 1998
Creator: Boesman, William C
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Business and Labor Spending in U.S. Elections

Business and Labor Spending in U.S. Elections

Date: October 28, 1997
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E
Description: Federal election law has long prohibited corporate and union spending in federal elections, but distinctions in statutes and judicial rulings have opened avenues by which these groups have been able to spend money in the electoral process. Business groups make particular use of political action committee (PAC) donations to candidates and soft money donations to parties. Unions made prominent use of issue advocacy in 1996, but labor’s political strength lies in exempt activity communications with members. This report explains these tools and their use in today’s elections.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Business and Labor Spending in U.S. Elections

Business and Labor Spending in U.S. Elections

Date: October 28, 1997
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E.
Description: Federal election law has long prohibited corporate and union spending in federal elections, but distinctions in statutes and judicial rulings have opened avenues by which these groups have been able to spend money in the electoral process. Business groups make particular use of political action committee (PAC) donations to candidates and soft money donations to parties. Unions made prominent use of issue advocacy in 1996, but labor’s political strength lies in exempt activity communications with members. This report explains these tools and their use in today’s elections.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Free and Reduced-Rate Television Time for Potential Candidates

Free and Reduced-Rate Television Time for Potential Candidates

Date: July 7, 1997
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E; Rutkus, Denis Steven & Greely, Kevin B
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Russian Financial Crisis: An Analysis of Trends, Causes, and Implications

The Russian Financial Crisis: An Analysis of Trends, Causes, and Implications

Date: February 18, 1999
Creator: Cooper, William H
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Japan's New Era of Coalition Governance: Implications for U.S. Interests and Policy

Japan's New Era of Coalition Governance: Implications for U.S. Interests and Policy

Date: March 15, 1995
Creator: Cronin, Richard P
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Japan's Ongoing Political Instability: Implications for U.S. Interests

Japan's Ongoing Political Instability: Implications for U.S. Interests

Date: July 8, 1994
Creator: Cronin, Richard P
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China: Pending Legislation in the 105th Congress

China: Pending Legislation in the 105th Congress

Date: June 19, 1998
Creator: Dumbaugh, Kerry
Description: This report tracks pending human rights legislation, including bills concerning: prison conditions and prison labor exports (H.R. 2195, H.R. 2358); coercive abortion practices (H.R. 2570); China’s policies toward religion (H.R. 967, H.R. 2431); and more general human rights issues (H.R. 2095). Other bills concern Taiwan — in particular, Taiwan’s entry into the World Trade Organization (H.Res. 190) and the U.S. role in helping Taiwan with a theater missile defense system (H.R. 2386). Also, legislation is pending on China’s missile proliferation activities (H.Res. 188), Radio Free Asia broadcasting to China (H.R. 2232), China’s participation in multilateral institutions (H.R. 1712, H.R. 2605), and the activities of China’s military and intelligence services (H.R. 2647, H.R. 2190).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China: Pending Legislation in the 105th Congress

China: Pending Legislation in the 105th Congress

Date: June 19, 1998
Creator: Dumbaugh, Kerry
Description: The 105 Congress has been active on issues involving China. This report, which will be updated as developments occur, tracks pending human rights legislation, including bills concerning: prison conditions and prison labor exports; coercive abortion practices; China’s policies toward religion; and more general human rights issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Hong Kong After Its Return to China: Implications for US Interests

Hong Kong After Its Return to China: Implications for US Interests

Date: June 10, 1998
Creator: Dumbaugh, Kerry
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Hong Kong: Sino-British Disputes and Implications for U.S. Interests

Hong Kong: Sino-British Disputes and Implications for U.S. Interests

Date: September 24, 1993
Creator: Dumbaugh, Kerry
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Hong Kong's Political Transition: Implications for U.S. Interests

Hong Kong's Political Transition: Implications for U.S. Interests

Date: October 19, 1995
Creator: Dumbaugh, Kerry
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Hong Kong's Return to China: Implications for U.S. Interests

Hong Kong's Return to China: Implications for U.S. Interests

Date: November 13, 1995
Creator: Dumbaugh, Kerry
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Hong Kong's Return to China: Implications for U.S. Interests

Hong Kong's Return to China: Implications for U.S. Interests

Date: December 11, 1996
Creator: Dumbaugh, Kerry
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Taiwan: Texts of the Taiwan Relations Act, the U.S. - China Communiques, and the "Six Assurances"

Taiwan: Texts of the Taiwan Relations Act, the U.S. - China Communiques, and the "Six Assurances"

Date: July 13, 1998
Creator: Dumbaugh, Kerry
Description: This report discusses the U.S. policy on Taiwan, which is governed by the Taiwan Relations Act (TRA), the 3 U.S. joint communiqués with China, and the so-called "Six Assurances" on Taiwan.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China's Prospects After Tiananmen Square: Current Conditions, Future Scenarios, and a Survey of Expert Opinion

China's Prospects After Tiananmen Square: Current Conditions, Future Scenarios, and a Survey of Expert Opinion

Date: January 15, 1991
Creator: Dumbaugh, Kerry; Kan, Shirley A & Sutter, Robert G
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Basic Questions on U.S. Citizenship and Naturalization

Basic Questions on U.S. Citizenship and Naturalization

Date: March 3, 1992
Creator: Eig, Larry M.
Description: U.S. citizenship is conferred at birth under the principle of jus soli (nationality of place of birth) and the principle of jus sanguinis (nationality of parents). The U.S. Constitution states as a fundamental rule of jus soli citizenship that "all persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside." The exceptions to universal citizenship comprehended by the requirement that a person be born "subject to the jurisdiction thereof" include: (1) children born to a foreign sovereign or accredited diplomatic official; (2) children born on a foreign public vessel, such as a warship; (3) children born to an alien enemy in hostile occupation; and (4) native Indians.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
State Techniques to Blunt the Governor's Item-Veto Power

State Techniques to Blunt the Governor's Item-Veto Power

Date: December 12, 1996
Creator: Fisher, Louis
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Unification of Germany: Background and Analysis of the Two-Plus-Four Talks

The Unification of Germany: Background and Analysis of the Two-Plus-Four Talks

Date: April 16, 1990
Creator: Gallis, Paul E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
German Unification

German Unification

Date: November 6, 1990
Creator: Gallis, Paul E & Woehrel, Steven
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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