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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Kuwait: Security, Reform, and U.S. Policy
Kuwaiti leaders peacefully resolved a succession crisis that erupted following the January 15, 2006 death of its long-ruling Amir. However, a new crisis erupted in May 2006 over the structure of the next parliamentary elections, prompting a dissolution of the existing parliament and new elections on June 29, 2006. Women votes and ran for the first time, but none won. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10249/
Kuwait: Security, Reform, and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9890/
Russian President Putin's Prospective Policies: Issues and Implications
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1282/
Albania: Country Background Report
This report discusses the economic and political status of Albania in the year 2000, notably focusing on certain important events throughout the 1990s, such as the Kosovo Crisis and the rise to power of the Socialist Party in 1997. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1281/
Iraq: Transition to Sovereignty
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6132/
Taiwan: Findings of a Congressional Staff Research Trip, December 2000
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1905/
Colombia: The Uribe Administration and Congressional Concerns
On August 7, 2002, President-elect, Alvaro Uribe Velez, age 49, is scheduled to take office amid an intensifying conflict. Uribe’s election has been widely attributed to his law-and-order campaign promises to pursue the guerrillas vigorously by increasing Colombia’s military budget, doubling the size of the military to 100,000, and creating a one-million man civilian militia to aid the Colombian military, as well as to the worsening security situation in Colombia. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3330/
Kuwait: Post-Saddam Issues and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7218/
Kuwait: Post-Saddam Issues and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7219/
Afghanistan: Challenges and Options for Reconstructing a Stable and Moderate State
This report provides information on and analysis of the current situation in Afghanistan, taking into consideration the country’s essential characteristics and political developments since about the time of the overthrow of the last Afghan King, Zahir Shah, in 1973, and sketches out four possible scenarios for Afghanistan’s future. Finally, the report identifies and analyzes factors that will influence Afghanistan’s political future, and discusses three policy areas in particular in which actions by the United States could be crucial to the achievement of the U.S. goal of a peaceful, stable, democratic, and terrorist-free Afghanistan. An appendix contains key documents relating to the December 2001 Bonn Agreement, which is the framework for current efforts to create a stable and democratic Afghanistan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3327/
Afghanistan: Challenges and Options for Reconstructing a Stable and Moderate State
This report provides information on and analysis of the current situation in Afghanistan, taking into consideration the country’s essential characteristics and political developments since about the time of the overthrow of the last Afghan King, Zahir Shah, in 1973, and sketches out four possible scenarios for Afghanistan’s future. Finally, the report identifies and analyzes factors that will influence Afghanistan’s political future, and discusses three policy areas in particular in which actions by the United States could be crucial to the achievement of the U.S. goal of a peaceful, stable, democratic, and terrorist-free Afghanistan. An appendix contains key documents relating to the December 2001 Bonn Agreement, which is the framework for current efforts to create a stable and democratic Afghanistan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3328/
Argentina's Political Upheaval
This report examines Argentina’s political upheaval in the early 2000s; the outlook for the Duhalde government (President Eduardo Duhalde being sworn in on December 2003); and related implications for the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3329/
Afghanistan: Challenges and Options for Reconstructing a Stable and Moderate State
This report provides information on and analysis of the current situation in Afghanistan, taking into consideration the country’s essential characteristics and political developments since about the time of the overthrow of the last Afghan King, Zahir Shah, in 1973, and sketches out four possible scenarios for Afghanistan’s future. Finally, the report identifies and analyzes factors that will influence Afghanistan’s political future, and discusses three policy areas in particular in which actions by the United States could be crucial to the achievement of the U.S. goal of a peaceful, stable, democratic, and terrorist-free Afghanistan. An appendix contains key documents relating to the December 2001 Bonn Agreement, which is the framework for current efforts to create a stable and democratic Afghanistan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3326/
Moldova: Basic Facts
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7998/
Latin America and the Caribbean: Fact Sheet on Leaders and Elections
This fact sheet tracks the current heads of government in Central and South America, Mexico, and the Caribbean. It provides the dates of the last and next elections for the head of government and the national independence date for each country. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26124/
Latin America and the Caribbean: Fact Sheet on Leaders and Elections
This fact sheet tracks the current heads of government in Central and South America, Mexico, and the Caribbean. It provides the dates of the last and next elections for the head of government and the national independence date for each country. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29548/
Latin America and the Caribbean: Fact Sheet on Leaders and Elections
This fact sheet tracks the current heads of government in Central and South America, Mexico, and the Caribbean. It provides the dates of the last and next elections for the head of government and the national independence date for each country. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29547/
Latin America and the Caribbean: Fact Sheet on Leaders and Elections
This fact sheet tracks the current heads of government in Central and South America, Mexico, and the Caribbean. It provides the dates of the last and next elections for the head of government and the national independence date for each country. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29549/
Iran: Profile of President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmedinejad was elected June 24, 2005, to a four-year term, becoming the first non-cleric president in 24 years. He defeated former president Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani in a run-off. Prior to his 2005 election to the presidency, Ahmadinejad did not hold an elected office and was a virtual unknown in the international arena. This report covers his background; his victory over the well-known former president Rafsanjani; his remarks about the West, including Israel; and recent visits to Iraq and Latin America. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10687/
Serbia and Montenegro Union: Prospects and Policy Implications
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8698/
Serbia and Montenegro Union: Prospects and Policy Implications
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8320/
Egypt: 2005 Presidential and Parliamentary Elections
This report provides an overview of the presidential election and its implications for U.S. policy toward Egypt and U.S. efforts to promote democracy in the region. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9716/
Egypt: 2005 Presidential and Parliamentary Elections
In 2005, Egypt conducted two sets of elections that illustrate both the opportunities and challenges for U.S. democracy promotion policy in the Middle East. On September 7, 2005, Egypt conducted its first multi-candidate presidential election, resulting in the reelection of President Hosni Mubarak with 88% of the vote. Although some have credited Egypt for holding a competitive election, many have criticized the outcome and alleged fraud. Parliamentary elections in Egypt resulted in the ruling NDP party securing an overwhelming majority of seats but also saw independent candidates affiliated with the outlawed Muslim Brotherhood winning nearly 20% of seats, a dramatic gain from previous elections. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10216/
The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6296/
Political Status of Puerto Rico: Background, Options, and Issues in the 109th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6707/
Political Status of Puerto Rico: Background, Options, and Issues in the 109th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6708/
Government at the Dawn of the 21st Century: A Status Report
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1900/
American National Government: An Overview
Power in American national government is decentralized, divided, dispersed, and limited. This distribution of power derives in part from the Constitution, through limitations imposed on the government, the system of checks and balances among the three branches, and independent bases of support and authority for each branch. This report, which examines these elements, will be updated as developments require. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1904/
Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas: Overview of Internal and External Challenges
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7337/
Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas: Overview of Internal and External Challenges
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7338/
The Size and Role of Government: Economic Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7545/
The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7240/
Hong Kong 2005: Changes in Leadership and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7696/
Democratic Republic of Congo: Transitional Process and U.N. Mission
The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is expected to hold local and national elections in mid-2005, as called for in the 2002 South African-sponsored Pretoria Agreement. The Transitional Government faces daunting challenges. The eastern part of the country is marred by insecurity and instability due to factional fighting and the presence of the Interhamwe, the group responsible for the 1994 Rwandan genocide. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7343/
East Timor: Political Dynamics, Development, and International Involvement
The situation in the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, which is also known as simply Timor-Leste or East Timor, is relatively calm compared with recent periods of political strife and insurrection. That said, some underlying tensions, such as with the security sector, remain to be resolved. Timor-Leste faces many serious challenges as it seeks to establish a stable democracy and develop its economy. A key challenge for East Timor will be to create enough political stability to focus on building state capacity and infrastructure with resources from the Timor Sea and prevent them from being squandered by corrupt practices. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26257/
Statutory Offices of Inspector General: Establishment and Evolution
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5205/
Statutory Offices of Inspector General: Establishment and Evolution
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5207/
Statutory Offices of Inspector General: Establishment and Evolution
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5206/
Statutory Offices of Inspector General: Establishment and Evolution
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1894/
Interest Groups and Lobbyists: Sources of Information
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3325/
Statutory Offices of Inspector General: Establishment and Evolution
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3305/
Civics Programs in Washington, D.C.
A number of programs in Washington, D.C., explain the workings of the national government to a diverse range of Americans, from middle school students to senior citizens. This report highlights six of the most popular programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3302/
Statutory Offices of Inspector General: Establishment and Evolution
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3304/
Civics Programs in Washington, D.C.
A number of programs in Washington, D.C., explain the workings of the national government to a diverse range of Americans, from middle school students to senior citizens. This report highlights six of the most popular programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3303/
Azerbaijan's October 2008 Presidential Election: Outcome and Implications
This report discusses the win by incumbent Ilkham Aliyev in Azerbaijan's October 15, 2008, presidential election. It describes the campaign and results, and examines implications for Azerbaijani and U.S. interests. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10814/
Afghanistan: Government Formation and Performance
The central government's limited writ and its perceived corruption are helping sustain a Taliban insurgency and painting President Hamid Karzai as a weak leader. However, factional and ethnic differences have remained confined to political debate, the largest regional strongmen have been marginalized, and Karzai is focused on reversing the perception of security deterioration in the runup to his re-election bid in the fall of 2009. See CRS Report RL30588, Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy, by Kenneth Katzman. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10612/
Cuba and the State Sponsors of Terrorism List
Cuba was first added to the State Department's list of states sponsoring international terrorism in 1982. At the time, numerous U.S. government reports and statements under the Reagan Administration alleged Cuba's ties to international terrorism and its support for terrorist groups in Latin America. Cuba remains on the state-sponsored terrorism list with four other countries: Iran, Syria, Sudan, and North Korea. Cuba's retention on the terrorism list has received more attention in recent years in light of increased support for legislative initiatives to lift some U.S. sanctions under the current economic embargo. Supporters of keeping Cuba on the terrorism list argue that there is ample evidence that Cuba supports terrorism. Critics of retaining Cuba on the terrorism list maintain that the policy is a holdover from the Cold War and that Cuba no longer supports terrorism abroad. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10424/
European Union Englargement
The European Union (EU) views the enlargement process as a historic opportunity to promote stability and prosperity in Europe. Although the EU maintains that the enlargement door remains open, "enlargement fatigue" has become a serious issue in Europe and some experts believe that EU enlargement may be reaching its limits. The status of EU enlargement is one of many transatlantic issues likely to be of interest to the second session of the 110th Congress. This report lists the various nations admitted to the European Union within the past several years and analyzes the enlargement issue in general. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10580/
Afghanistan: Government Formation and Performance
The central government's limited writ and perceived corruption are helping sustain a Taliban insurgency and feeding pessimism about the Afghanistan stabilization effort. However, ethnic disputes have been confined to political debate and competition, enabling Karzai to focus on improving governance, reversing security deterioration and on his re-election bid in the fall of 2009. See CRS Report RL30588, Afghanistan: Post- War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy, by Kenneth Katzman. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10614/
Afghanistan: Government Formation and Performance
The central government's limited writ and its perceived corruption are helping sustain a Taliban insurgency and painting President Hamid Karzai as a weak leader. However, factional and ethnic differences have remained confined to political debate, regional strongmen have been marginalized, and Karzai is focused on improving coordination with international donors and force contributors in the runup to his reelection bid in the fall of 2009. See CRS Report RL30588, Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy, by Kenneth Katzman. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10611/
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