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 Country: Iraq
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Iraq: Transition to Sovereignty
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6132/
The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7240/
The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6296/
Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights
This report discusses Iraq's political system that is increasingly characterized by peaceful competition and formation of cross-sectarian alliances. However, ethnic and sectarian political and sometimes violent infighting continues, often involving the questionable use of key levers of power and legal institutions. This infighting-and the belief that holding political power may mean the difference between life and death for the various political communities-significantly delayed agreement on a new government that was to be selected following the March 7, 2010, national elections for the Council of Representatives (COR, parliament) digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84122/
Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights
This report discusses Iraq's political system that is increasingly characterized by peaceful competition and formation of cross-sectarian alliances. However, ethnic and sectarian political and sometimes violent infighting continues, often involving the questionable use of key levers of power and legal institutions. This infighting-and the belief that holding political power may mean the difference between life and death for the various political communities-significantly delayed agreement on a new government that was to be selected following the March 7, 2010, national elections for the Council of Representatives (COR, parliament) digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84121/
Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights
This report discusses Iraq's political system that is increasingly characterized by peaceful competition and formation of cross-sectarian alliances. However, ethnic and sectarian political and sometimes violent infighting continues, often involving the questionable use of key levers of power and legal institutions. This infighting-and the belief that holding political power may mean the difference between life and death for the various political communities-significantly delayed agreement on a new government that was to be selected following the March 7, 2010, national elections for the Council of Representatives (COR, parliament) digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40273/
Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights
The view of the Administration and others is that Iraqi factions, with U.S. and other help, will be able to work through the severe political disputes and ongoing violence, and will also be willing and able to resist increased Iranian influence in Iraq. The Administration states that U.S. training will continue using programs for Iraq similar to those with other countries in which there is no U.S. troop presence, and about 15,000 U.S. personnel, including contractors, remain in Iraq under State Department authority to exert U.S. influence. Continuing the security relationship in the absence of U.S. troops in Iraq, and developing the civilian bilateral relationship, was the focus of the U.S. visit of Prime Minister Maliki on December 12, 2011. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86670/
Iraq: Post-Saddam National Elections
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7230/
Iraq: Elections and New Government
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7231/
Iraq: Post-Saddam National Elections
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7232/
Iraq: Elections and New Government
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7233/
Iraq: Post-Saddam National Elections
This report discusses United States and United Nations preparations for Iraq’s planned elections for a transitional National Assembly, scheduled for January 30, 2005. Elections preparations are significantly hindered by continuing insurgency and threats of a boycott by many of Iraq’s Sunni Arabs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7859/
Iraq: Elections, Government, and Constitution
Elections in 2005 for a transition government (January 30, 2005), a permanent constitution (October 15), and a permanent (four year) government (December 15) were concluded despite insurgent violence, progressively attracting Sunni participation. On May 20, a unity government was formed as U.S. officials had been urging, but the government has been unable to reduce sectarian violence, and there are growing signs of fragmentation within it. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10228/
Iraq: Elections, Government, and Constitution
This report discusses Iraqi government in the wake of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Elections in 2005 for a transitional National Assembly and government (January 30, 2005), a permanent constitution (October 15), and a permanent (four year) Council of Representatives and government (December 15) were concluded despite insurgent violence and attracted progressively increasing Sunni participation. However, escalating sectarian violence and factional infighting have delayed formation of a new government. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9924/
Iraq: Elections, Government, and Constitution
This report discusses the Iraqi government in the wake of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Elections for a transitional National Assembly and government (January 30, 2005), a permanent constitution (October 15), and a permanent (four year) Council of Representatives and government (December 15) have been concluded despite insurgent violence. U.S. officials hope that the high turnout among Sunni Arabs in the December 15 elections -- and post-election bargaining among all factions -- will produce an inclusive government that reduces insurgent violence. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824783/
Iraq: Elections, Government, and Constitution
This report discusses the Iraqi government in the wake of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Elections for a transitional National Assembly and government (January 30, 2005), a permanent constitution (October 15), and a permanent (four year) Council of Representatives and government (December 15) have been concluded despite insurgent violence. U.S. officials hope that the high turnout among Sunni Arabs in the December 15 elections -- and post-election bargaining among all factions -- will produce an inclusive government that reduces insurgent violence. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824800/
Iraq: Map Sources
This report identifies online sources for maps of Iraq, including government, library, and organizational websites. These sources have been selected on the basis of their authoritativeness and the range, quality, and uniqueness of the maps they provide. Some sources provide up-to-the-minute maps; others have been selected for their collection of historical maps. Maps of the Iraq, the Middle East, the state of Al Qaeda in Iraq, and the movement of refugees in Iraq are provided. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822018/
Iraq: Regional Perspectives and U.S. Policy
This report provides information about the current perspectives and policies of Iraq's neighbors following the fall of the Saddam Hussein regime in 2003; analyzes potential regional responses to renewed violence and longer-term stabilization efforts; discusses shared concerns and U.S. long-term regional interests; and reviews U.S. policy options for responding to various contingencies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689463/
Iraq: Map Sources
This report identifies online sources for maps of Iraq, including government, library, and organizational websites. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743574/
Middle East Elections 2009: Lebanon, Iran, Afghanistan, and Iraq
This report provides an overview of the election contests in Lebanon, Iran, Afghanistan, and Iraq, including possible outcomes and implications for U.S. policy. The strategic influence of Iran in the Middle East, the stability of Iraq, and the ongoing war in Afghanistan are at the forefront of U.S. policy and Congressional interest in the region. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795619/
Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights
Iraq's political transition from the dictatorship of Saddam Hussein to a plural polity that encompasses varying sects and ideological and political factions has been accomplished through a series of elections that began in 2005. However, disputes regarding various communities' claims on power and economic resources has contributed to popular frustration and continued political unrest. This report discusses these issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40258/
Iraq's New Security Forces: The Challenge of Sectarian and Ethnic Influences
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6207/
Iraq's New Security Forces: The Challenge of Sectarian and Ethnic Influences
This report analyzes the prospects for rebuilding an inclusive Iraqi security force that transcends Iraq’s various ethnic and sectarian communities. U.S. policy makers and Iraqi officials aim to create a unified Iraqi security force; however, the predominately Sunni Arab insurgency has hampered this effort, and many believe that the new Iraqi security agencies will ultimately be composed of mostly Shiite and Kurdish recruits with both communities separately maintaining their own militias. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8286/
Iraq: Map Sources
This report identifies online sources for maps of Iraq, including government, library, and organizational websites. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491623/
U.S. Policies on Iraq: CRS Experts
The following table provides access to names and contact information for CRS experts on policy concerns relating to Iraq. Policy areas identified include: U.S. policies on Iraq; governance in Iraq and U.S. military issues; refugees, internally displaced persons, and humanitarian assistance; prospects for Iraq's economy; resource and funding requirements; and the international context--the regional political and security environment. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc626961/
Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights
Iraq's political system is increasingly characterized by peaceful competition and formation of cross-sectarian alliances. However, ethnic and sectarian political and sometimes violent infighting continues, often involving the questionable use of key levers of power and legal institutions. This infighting-and the belief that holding political power may mean the difference between life and death for the various political communities-significantly delayed agreement on a new government that was to be selected following the March 7, 2010, national elections for the Council of Representatives (COR, parliament). With U.S. diplomatic help, on November 10, 2010, major ethnic and sectarian factions agreed on a framework for a new government, breaking the long deadlock. The agreement, under which Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki is serving a second term, was implemented when a broad-based cabinet was confirmed on December 21, 2010. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40260/
Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights
This report discusses Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights. Relations among major political factions have worsened substantially since late 2011, threatening Iraq's stability and the perception of the achievements of the long U.S. intervention in Iraq. Sunni Arabs, always fearful that Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki would seek unchallenged power for Shiite factions allied with him, accuse him of an outright power grab as he seeks to purge the highest-ranking Sunni Arabs from government and to cripple attempts by Sunni-inhabited provinces to achieve greater autonomy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86669/
Iran-Iraq Relations
This report provides background information on Iran's support to armed groups and Iranian political influence. The report discusses the relationship between Iran and Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491609/
Iraq: Politics, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses the current political and social climate of Iraq, specifically in regards to the influence of the U.S. military presence over recent years. This report addresses planned and possible future efforts under the Obama Administration, including the scheduled gradual troops withdrawal. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503665/
Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security
This report discusses the current political and social climate of Iraq, specifically in regards to the influence of the U.S. military presence over recent years. This report addresses planned and possible future efforts under the Obama Administration, including the scheduled gradual troops withdrawal. Some U.S. officials believe that a U.S. military presence is needed beyond the scheduled August 31, 2010 date, by which point all U.S. troops will have been withdrawn. This report also discusses the continued tensions between various Iraqi sociocultural groups. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26204/
Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security
The Obama Administration is facing a security environment in Iraq vastly improved over that which prevailed during 2005-2007, although still not completely peaceful or without potential to deteriorate significantly. Some U.S. officials believe that further U.S. military presence might be needed beyond the projected 2011 withdrawal date, and that political disputes among Iraqi factions could escalate and reignite civil conflict in the absence of a U.S. presence. This report discusses these issues in detail, as well as the factors that have contributed to the planned withdrawal of U.S. troops, including mounting casualties and financial costs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26203/
Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses
Much of the debate over U.S. policy toward Iran has centered on the nature of the current regime; some believe that Iran, a country of about 70 million people, is a threat to U.S. interests because hardliners in Iran's regime dominate and set a policy direction intended to challenge U.S. influence and allies in the region. President George W. Bush, in his January 29, 2002, State of the Union message, labeled Iran part of an "axis of evil" along with Iraq and North Korea. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29648/
Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks
Iraq's political system, the result of a U.S.-supported election process, is increasingly characterized by peaceful competition rather than violence, but sectarianism and ethnic and factional infighting continue to simmer. This report discusses the current state of Iraq, concentrating primarily on the actions of Iraqi Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki, efforts underway to combat sectarian violence, and the projected U.S. troop withdrawal by August 2010. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26327/
Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks
Iraq's political system, the result of a U.S.-supported election process, has been increasingly characterized by peaceful competition, as well as by attempts to form cross-sectarian alliances. However, ethnic and factional infighting continues, sometimes involving the questionable use of key levers of power and legal institutions. This report discusses the current political climate of Iraq and also explores speculations as to what will happen after U.S. troops completely withdraw from the region at the end of 2011. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29738/
Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks
Iraq's political system, the result of a U.S.-supported election process, is increasingly characterized by peaceful competition rather than violence, but sectarianism and ethnic and factional infighting continue to simmer. This report discusses the current state of Iraq, concentrating primarily on the actions of Iraqi Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki, efforts underway to combat sectarian violence, and the projected U.S. troop withdrawal by August 2010. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31450/
Iraq: U.S. Regime Change Efforts and Post-War Governance
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5233/
Iraq: U.S. Regime Change Efforts and Post-War Governance
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5234/
Iraq: U.S. Regime Change Efforts and Post-War Iraq
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5229/
Iraq: U.S. Regime Change Efforts, the Iraqi Opposition, and Post-War Iraq
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5236/
The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq
This report discusses the state of the Kurdish-inhabited region of northern Iraq, which has been fairly peaceful since the fall of Saddam Hussein; however, the region is also home to friction with Christian and other minorities, with Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki and other Arab leaders of Iraq, and with neighboring Turkey and Iran. The report also addresses other general political issues and tensions in the Kurdish region, and how said tensions might affect and be affected by the projected U.S. drawdown of U.S. forces in Iraq between now and August 2010. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26329/
Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security
This report discusses the current political and social climate of Iraq, specifically in regards to the influence of the U.S. military presence over recent years. This report addresses planned and possible future efforts under the Obama Administration, including the scheduled gradual troops withdrawal. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700709/
Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security
This report discusses the current political and social climate of Iraq, specifically in regards to the influence of the U.S. military presence over recent years. This report addresses planned and possible future efforts under the Obama Administration, including the scheduled gradual troops withdrawal. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700708/
Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security
Operation Iraqi Freedom succeeded in overthrowing Saddam Hussein, but Iraq remains unstable because of Sunni Arab resentment and a related insurgency, now compounded by Sunni-Shiite violence that some believe is a civil war. This report discusses the background of the issue and examines several security challenges, response, and other policy options for the U.S. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8676/
Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security
Operation Iraqi Freedom succeeded in overthrowing Saddam Hussein, but Iraq remains unstable because of Sunni Arab resentment and a related insurgency, now compounded by Sunni-Shiite violence that some believe is a civil war. This report discusses the background of the issue and examines several security challenges, response, and other policy options for the U.S. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9346/
Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security
Operation Iraqi Freedom succeeded in overthrowing Saddam Hussein, but Iraq remains unstable because of Sunni Arab resentment and a related insurgency, compounded by burgeoning sectarian violence. According to its November 30, 2005, “Strategy for Victory,” the Bush Administration indicates that U.S. forces will remain in Iraq until the country is able to provide for its own security and does not serve as a host for radical Islamic terrorists. This report discusses the background of the issue and examines several security challenges, response, and other policy options for the U.S. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9023/
Iraq: U.S. Regime Change Efforts and Post-Saddam Governance
Operation Iraqi Freedom succeeded in overthrowing Saddam Hussein, but Iraq remains violent and unstable because of Sunni Arab resentment and a related insurgency, as well as increasing sectarian violence. According to its November 30, 2005, “Strategy for Victory,” the Bush Administration indicates that U.S. forces will remain in Iraq until the country is able to provide for its own security and does not serve as a host for radical Islamic terrorists. This report discusses the background of the issue and examines several security challenges, response, and other policy options for the U.S. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8577/
Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security
Operation Iraqi Freedom succeeded in overthrowing Saddam Hussein, but Iraq remains unstable because of Sunni Arab resentment and a related insurgency, compounded by burgeoning Sunni-Shiite violence. According to its November 30, 2005, “Strategy for Victory,” the Bush Administration indicates that U.S. forces will remain in Iraq until the country is able to provide for its own security. This report discusses security challenges, responses, and policy options. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9756/
Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security
Operation Iraqi Freedom overthrew Saddam Hussein’s regime, but Iraq remains unstable because of Sunni Arab resentment and a related insurgency, compounded by Sunni-Shiite violence that a January 2007 national intelligence estimate says has key elements of a “civil war.” Mounting U.S. casualties and financial costs — without clear signs of security progress — have intensified a debate within the United States over whether to wind down U.S. involvement without completely accomplishing initial U.S. goals. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10179/
Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security
Operation Iraqi Freedom succeeded in overthrowing Saddam Hussein, but Iraq remains unstable because of Sunni Arab resentment and a related insurgency, now compounded by Sunni-Shiite violence that some believe is a civil war. According to its November 30, 2005, “Strategy for Victory,” the Bush Administration indicates that U.S. forces will remain in Iraq until the country is able to provide for its own security. This report discusses security challenges, responses, and policy options. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9775/
Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security
Operation Iraqi Freedom succeeded in overthrowing Saddam Hussein, but Iraq remains unstable because of Sunni Arab resentment and a related insurgency, compounded by burgeoning sectarian violence. According to its November 30, 2005, “Strategy for Victory,” the Bush Administration indicates that U.S. forces will remain in Iraq until the country is able to provide for its own security and does not serve as a host for radical Islamic terrorists. This report discusses the background of the issue and examines several security challenges, response, and other policy options for the U.S. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9705/
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