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 Decade: 1990-1999
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Grazing Fees: An Overview

Grazing Fees: An Overview

Date: May 21, 1996
Creator: Cody, Betsy A.
Description: This report briefly discusses charging fees for grazing private livestock on federal lands, which is a long-standing but contentious practice. Generally, livestock producers who use federal lands want to keep fees low, while conservation groups and others believe fees should be raised to approximate "fair market value."
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Sales of Natural Resources: Pricing and Allocation Mechanisms (1998)

Federal Sales of Natural Resources: Pricing and Allocation Mechanisms (1998)

Date: December 11, 1998
Creator: Gorte, Ross W
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Below-Cost Timber Sales: An Overview

Below-Cost Timber Sales: An Overview

Date: December 20, 1994
Creator: Gorte, Ross W
Description: The Forest Service sells some timber at prices that are less than the agency costs to administer the timber program. This report discusses these "below-cost" timber sales that have been debated by Congress for more than a decade, but no policy to address the issue has been adopted legislatively or administratively.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Biological Diversity: Issues Related to the Convention on Biodiversity

Biological Diversity: Issues Related to the Convention on Biodiversity

Date: May 15, 1995
Creator: Fletcher, Susan R
Description: This report discusses treaty on biodiversity, issues, history and current status.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clearcutting in the National Forests

Clearcutting in the National Forests

Date: July 29, 1992
Creator: Backiel, Adela & Gorte, Ross W
Description: Congressional interest in clearcutting has increased in the past few years. Several bills have been introduced in the current and preceding Congresses to ban the use of clearcutting and/or all even-aged management systems in the national forests. The issue, however, transcends the use of clearcutting and focuses on how to assure the choice of a silvicultural system and the implementation of the management practices that will achieve the stated goals for public land and resource management.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Softwood Lumber Imports: The 1996 U.S.-Canada Agreement

Softwood Lumber Imports: The 1996 U.S.-Canada Agreement

Date: June 13, 1996
Creator: Gorte, Ross W
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Deep Seabed Mining: U.S. Interests and the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea

Deep Seabed Mining: U.S. Interests and the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea

Date: April 7, 1995
Creator: Mielke, James E
Description: On July 29, 1994, the United States signed the Agreement Relating to the Implementation of Part XI of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982. This agreement substantially reforms the seabed mining provisions of the 1982 Convention, which the United States found objectionable. In signing the Agreement, President Clinton accepted provisional application of it which enables the United States to participate in the International Seabed Authority (ISA) and its organs and bodies. On November 16, 1994, the U.N. Law of the Sea Convention entered into force without accession by the United States.The treaty document was referred to the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations late in the 103d Congress and awaits committee action in the 104th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The President's Forest/Roadless Area Initiative

The President's Forest/Roadless Area Initiative

Date: October 28, 1999
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Agricultural Wetlands: Current Programs and Legislative Proposals

Agricultural Wetlands: Current Programs and Legislative Proposals

Date: January 4, 1996
Creator: Zinn, Jeffrey A & Copeland, Claudia
Description: Amending Federal laws to protect wetlands, especially agricultural wetlands, is a contentious issue for the 104th Congress. Critics contend that current programs are excessive in their reach and unfairly restrict private landowners. Supporters counter that these programs are critical if the Nation is to achieve the stated goal of no-net-loss of wetlands. The two major statutes under which agricultural wetlands are protected are swampbuster, enacted in the Agriculture, Food, Trade, and Conservation Act of 1985, and section 404, enacted in the 1972 Clean Water Act. This report describes both programs, emphasizing how they relate to each other. It explains how each program works, especially on agricultural wetlands, and the likely effect of proposed revisions to swampbuster. Also, it briefly considers other legislative proposals that would amend the section 404 program, which, if enacted, would further affect how agricultural wetlands are protected.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Land Ownership: Constitutional Authority; the History of Acquisition, Disposal, and Retention; and Current Acquisition and Disposal Authorities

Federal Land Ownership: Constitutional Authority; the History of Acquisition, Disposal, and Retention; and Current Acquisition and Disposal Authorities

Date: April 7, 1999
Creator: Gorte, Ross W & Baldwin, Pamela
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Roadless Areas: The Administration's Moratorium

Roadless Areas: The Administration's Moratorium

Date: April 8, 1999
Creator: Gorte, Ross W
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
New World Gold Mine and Yellowstone National Park

New World Gold Mine and Yellowstone National Park

Date: August 27, 1996
Creator: Humphries, Marc
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Forest Service Timber Sale Practices and Procedures: Analysis of Alternative Systems

Forest Service Timber Sale Practices and Procedures: Analysis of Alternative Systems

Date: October 30, 1995
Creator: Gorte, Ross W
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Salvage Timber Sales and Forest Health

Salvage Timber Sales and Forest Health

Date: June 7, 1996
Creator: Gorte, Ross W
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Wetlands and Agriculture: Policy Issues in the 1995 Farm Bill

Wetlands and Agriculture: Policy Issues in the 1995 Farm Bill

Date: December 19, 1994
Creator: Zinn, Jeffrey A
Description: Wetlands protection efforts have been a major concern for agricultural interests since Congress enacted so-called swampbuster provisions in the 1985 Food Security Act. Under these provisions, all producers who alter wetlands risk losing certain farm program benefits. Determining which sites are wetlands and enforcement of penalties remain contentious issues. Controversy has been heightened by confusion over how this program is related to the principal Federal regulatory program to protect wetlands, section 404 of the Clean Water Act, and how wetland determinations affect land values and private property rights. Because the 103rd Congress did not reauthorize the Clean Water Act, some of the wetland issues raised in that debate might be raised in the farm bill. Another wetland protection program, the Wetland Reserve (WRP), was enacted in the 1990 farm bill. This program, which pays farmers to place wetlands under long-term or permanent easements, has been far less controversial. This paper reviews the swampbuster and WRP, as well as controversies surrounding delineation of wetlands and relationships between private property rights and wetland protection efforts.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Timber Harvests: Implications for U.S. Timber Supply

Federal Timber Harvests: Implications for U.S. Timber Supply

Date: March 10, 1998
Creator: Gorte, Ross W
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Listing of a Species: Legal Definition and Biological Realities

The Listing of a Species: Legal Definition and Biological Realities

Date: December 15, 1992
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Non-Indigenous Species: Government Response to the Brown Tree Snake and Issues for Congress

Non-Indigenous Species: Government Response to the Brown Tree Snake and Issues for Congress

Date: May 2, 1997
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Grazing Fees and Rangeland Management

Grazing Fees and Rangeland Management

Date: December 4, 1998
Creator: Cody, Betsy A. & Baldwin, Pamela
Description: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM, Department of the Interior) and the Forest Service (Department of Agriculture) manage approximately 70% of the 650 million acres of land owned by the federal government and many of these lands are classified as rangeland. Both agencies have well-established programs permitting private livestock grazing. The Administration issued new, controversial BLM rangeland management rules effective in August 1995. Supporters contended that the Administration's new rules were a step forward in sound resource management, but some believed they did not go far enough to protect rangelands and riparian areas. Many in the ranching community opposed the new rules, believing that they would ultimately reduce private livestock activity on federal lands, and increase operating costs. This report examines the debate over federal grazing management.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Biological Diversity Treaty: Fact Sheet

Biological Diversity Treaty: Fact Sheet

Date: May 16, 1995
Creator: Fletcher, Susan R.
Description: As human activity continues to change and modify natural areas, widespread extinctions of plants, animals, and other types of species result. In 1992, negotiations conducted under the auspices of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) were completed on a comprehensive global treaty to protect biological diversity (biodiversity). In June 1993, President Clinton signed the treaty and sent it to the Senate for advice and consent. It is not pending in the Senate. The treaty entered into force on December 29, 1993. As of May 15, 1995, 118 nations had ratified the treaty.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Endangered Species Act and Private Property

The Endangered Species Act and Private Property

Date: March 7, 1993
Creator: Meltz, Robert
Description: If the 103rd Congress embarks upon an effort to reauthorize the Endangered Species Act (ESA), it will run into an old acquaintance: the property rights issue. As now written, the ESA has at least the potential to curtail property rights (whatever its actual impact as implemented may be). This report explores the legal repercussions of those impacts, especially whether they constitute takings of property under the fifth amendment of the U.S. Constitution.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Biotechnology, Indigenous Peoples, and Intellectual Property Rights

Biotechnology, Indigenous Peoples, and Intellectual Property Rights

Date: April 16, 1993
Creator: Axt, Josephie R; Lee, Margaret Mikyung & Ackerman, David M
Description: This report examines intellectual property right in pharmaceuticals in a particular context, namely, medicinal products and processes derived from the biodiversity resources of areas inhabited by indigenous peoples. This report discusses the international law regarding intellectual property rights in traditional knowledge and the American laws regarding traditional knowledge.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
International Forest Agreements: Current Status

International Forest Agreements: Current Status

Date: September 11, 1995
Creator: Fletcher, Susan R
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Marine Dead Zones: Understanding the Problem

Marine Dead Zones: Understanding the Problem

Date: November 23, 1998
Creator: Dandelski, John R & Buck, Eugene H
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department