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 Decade: 1990-1999
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Amtrak and Energy Conservation in Intercity Passenger Transportation

Amtrak and Energy Conservation in Intercity Passenger Transportation

Date: September 3, 1996
Creator: Thompson, Stephen J
Description: A rationale for federal financial support to Amtrak has been that rail service conserves energy, compared to other forms of intercity passenger transportation. The numbers presented in this report suggest that the rationale might not be valid with regard to some alternative modes of transportation, and the report discusses some public policy implications that could follow from that conclusion.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
African Elephant Issues: CITES and CAMPFIRE

African Elephant Issues: CITES and CAMPFIRE

Date: August 5, 1997
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne & Fletcher, Susan R.
Description: The conservation of African elephants has been controversial recently on two fronts: the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES, to which the United States is a party), and a Zimbabwean program for sustainable development called CAMPFIRE, which is partially funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). Two controversies have sprung up recently about the African elephant. One is the changing status of this species under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), of which the United States is a signatory. The other is over a program in Zimbabwe called "CAMPFIRE." The partial funding of this program by the U.S. Agency for International Development has been criticized by animal welfare groups and some conservation groups, though it has been supported by other conservation groups as well as many hunting organizations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Ecosystems, Biomes, and Watersheds: Definitions and Use

Ecosystems, Biomes, and Watersheds: Definitions and Use

Date: July 14, 1993
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne
Description: This paper describes the meaning and applications of ecosystem and of the related terms watershed and biome. It discusses the pros and cons of all three as organizing principles for land management, and the major issues that are likely to arise in the debate over ecosystem management.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Restricting Softwood Log Exports: Policy and Legal Implications

Restricting Softwood Log Exports: Policy and Legal Implications

Date: August 13, 1993
Creator: Gorte, Ross W & Thomas, Kenneth R
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Forest Fires and Forest Health

Forest Fires and Forest Health

Date: June 7, 1996
Creator: Gorte, Ross W
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Wetland Mitigation Banking: Status and Prospects

Wetland Mitigation Banking: Status and Prospects

Date: September 12, 1997
Creator: Zinn, Jeffrey A
Description: Wetland protection is controversial because the federal government regulates activities on private lands and because the natural values at some of these regulated sites are being debated. This controversy pits property owners and development interests against environmentalists and others who seek to protect the remaining wetlands. Mitigation banking, which allows a person to degrade a wetland at one site if a wetland at another site is improved, has been identified as a potential answer to this shrill and seemingly intractable debate.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Survey of Grazing Programs in Western States

Survey of Grazing Programs in Western States

Date: January 30, 1996
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela & Cody, Betsy A
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Mexican Spotted Owls: Federal Protection

Mexican Spotted Owls: Federal Protection

Date: June 30, 1993
Creator: Heck, Jennifer A
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Mexican Wolf: Federal Protection

Mexican Wolf: Federal Protection

Date: October 21, 1993
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Wildlife Restoration Projects Fund

Wildlife Restoration Projects Fund

Date: May 2, 1997
Creator: Talley, Louis Alan
Description: Since 1937, a cooperative program between the federal and state governments has existed for wildlife restoration. This program provides federal grants-in-aid to state agencies for conservation through land and water management for wild birds and mammals. While up to 8% of the collected revenues from excise taxes dedicated to the program may be retained by the federal government for administration, all remaining funds are apportioned to the states and territories for use either in wildlife restoration or hunter safety and education programs. Wildlife restoration programs receive all funds generated from the excise tax on firearms other than pistols and revolvers and all funds collected from shells and cartridges. Additionally, one-half of the excise taxes collected from pistols, revolvers, and archery equipment goes for wildlife restoration purposes. Hunter safety and education programs are funded from the remaining half of excise taxes collected on pistols, revolvers, and archery equipment. The states have been authorized by law to use hunter safety and education funds for wildlife restoration projects.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Grazing Fees: An Overview

Grazing Fees: An Overview

Date: May 21, 1996
Creator: Cody, Betsy A.
Description: This report briefly discusses charging fees for grazing private livestock on federal lands, which is a long-standing but contentious practice. Generally, livestock producers who use federal lands want to keep fees low, while conservation groups and others believe fees should be raised to approximate "fair market value."
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Sales of Natural Resources: Pricing and Allocation Mechanisms (1998)

Federal Sales of Natural Resources: Pricing and Allocation Mechanisms (1998)

Date: December 11, 1998
Creator: Gorte, Ross W
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Below-Cost Timber Sales: An Overview

Below-Cost Timber Sales: An Overview

Date: December 20, 1994
Creator: Gorte, Ross W
Description: The Forest Service sells some timber at prices that are less than the agency costs to administer the timber program. This report discusses these "below-cost" timber sales that have been debated by Congress for more than a decade, but no policy to address the issue has been adopted legislatively or administratively.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Biological Diversity: Issues Related to the Convention on Biodiversity

Biological Diversity: Issues Related to the Convention on Biodiversity

Date: May 15, 1995
Creator: Fletcher, Susan R
Description: This report discusses treaty on biodiversity, issues, history and current status.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clearcutting in the National Forests

Clearcutting in the National Forests

Date: July 29, 1992
Creator: Backiel, Adela & Gorte, Ross W
Description: Congressional interest in clearcutting has increased in the past few years. Several bills have been introduced in the current and preceding Congresses to ban the use of clearcutting and/or all even-aged management systems in the national forests. The issue, however, transcends the use of clearcutting and focuses on how to assure the choice of a silvicultural system and the implementation of the management practices that will achieve the stated goals for public land and resource management.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Softwood Lumber Imports: The 1996 U.S.-Canada Agreement

Softwood Lumber Imports: The 1996 U.S.-Canada Agreement

Date: June 13, 1996
Creator: Gorte, Ross W
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Deep Seabed Mining: U.S. Interests and the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea

Deep Seabed Mining: U.S. Interests and the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea

Date: April 7, 1995
Creator: Mielke, James E
Description: On July 29, 1994, the United States signed the Agreement Relating to the Implementation of Part XI of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982. This agreement substantially reforms the seabed mining provisions of the 1982 Convention, which the United States found objectionable. In signing the Agreement, President Clinton accepted provisional application of it which enables the United States to participate in the International Seabed Authority (ISA) and its organs and bodies. On November 16, 1994, the U.N. Law of the Sea Convention entered into force without accession by the United States.The treaty document was referred to the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations late in the 103d Congress and awaits committee action in the 104th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The President's Forest/Roadless Area Initiative

The President's Forest/Roadless Area Initiative

Date: October 28, 1999
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Agricultural Wetlands: Current Programs and Legislative Proposals

Agricultural Wetlands: Current Programs and Legislative Proposals

Date: January 4, 1996
Creator: Zinn, Jeffrey A & Copeland, Claudia
Description: Amending Federal laws to protect wetlands, especially agricultural wetlands, is a contentious issue for the 104th Congress. Critics contend that current programs are excessive in their reach and unfairly restrict private landowners. Supporters counter that these programs are critical if the Nation is to achieve the stated goal of no-net-loss of wetlands. The two major statutes under which agricultural wetlands are protected are swampbuster, enacted in the Agriculture, Food, Trade, and Conservation Act of 1985, and section 404, enacted in the 1972 Clean Water Act. This report describes both programs, emphasizing how they relate to each other. It explains how each program works, especially on agricultural wetlands, and the likely effect of proposed revisions to swampbuster. Also, it briefly considers other legislative proposals that would amend the section 404 program, which, if enacted, would further affect how agricultural wetlands are protected.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Land Ownership: Constitutional Authority; the History of Acquisition, Disposal, and Retention; and Current Acquisition and Disposal Authorities

Federal Land Ownership: Constitutional Authority; the History of Acquisition, Disposal, and Retention; and Current Acquisition and Disposal Authorities

Date: April 7, 1999
Creator: Gorte, Ross W & Baldwin, Pamela
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Roadless Areas: The Administration's Moratorium

Roadless Areas: The Administration's Moratorium

Date: April 8, 1999
Creator: Gorte, Ross W
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
New World Gold Mine and Yellowstone National Park

New World Gold Mine and Yellowstone National Park

Date: August 27, 1996
Creator: Humphries, Marc
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Forest Service Timber Sale Practices and Procedures: Analysis of Alternative Systems

Forest Service Timber Sale Practices and Procedures: Analysis of Alternative Systems

Date: October 30, 1995
Creator: Gorte, Ross W
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Salvage Timber Sales and Forest Health

Salvage Timber Sales and Forest Health

Date: June 7, 1996
Creator: Gorte, Ross W
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department