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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Rare Earth Elements: The Global Supply Chain
The concentration of production of rare earth elements (REEs) outside the United States raises the important issue of supply vulnerability. REEs are used for new energy technologies and national security applications. This report provides a discussion on the major issues and concerns of the global supply chain for rare earth elements, their major end uses, and legislative and other policy proposals that Congress may consider to improve the U.S. rare earth position. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31365/
Below-Cost Timber Sales: An Overview
The Forest Service sells some timber at prices that are less than the agency costs to administer the timber program. This report discusses these "below-cost" timber sales that have been debated by Congress for more than a decade, but no policy to address the issue has been adopted legislatively or administratively. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs145/
The Endangered Species Act: Consideration of Economic Factors
The Endangered Species Act (ESA) provides for the listing and protection of species that are found to be “endangered” or “threatened” – species that might become extinct. The listing of a species as endangered triggers the prohibitions in the Act against “taking” (killing or harming) individuals of the protected species, unless a permit is obtained to take individuals incidental to an otherwise lawful proposed action, or an exemption for the proposed action is obtained. Unauthorized taking of a listed species can result in civil or criminal penalties. These prohibitions and potential penalties can affect various activities, including development and use of land, with attendant economic impacts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3771/
The Endangered Species Act: Consideration of Economic Factors
The Endangered Species Act (ESA) provides for the listing and protection of species that are found to be “endangered” or “threatened” – species that might become extinct. The listing of a species as endangered triggers the prohibitions in the Act against “taking” (killing or harming) individuals of the protected species, unless a permit is obtained to take individuals incidental to an otherwise lawful proposed action, or an exemption for the proposed action is obtained. Unauthorized taking of a listed species can result in civil or criminal penalties. These prohibitions and potential penalties can affect various activities, including development and use of land, with attendant economic impacts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1406/
The Endangered Species Act and "Sound Science"
This report provides a context for evaluating legislative proposals through examples of how science has been used in selected cases, a discussion of the nature and role of science in general, and its role in the Endangered Species Act (ESA) process in particular, together with general and agency information quality requirements and policies, and a review of how the courts have viewed agency use of science. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2155/
Non-Indigenous Species: Government Response to the Brown Tree Snake and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs387/
Soil and Water Conservation Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5728/
Soil and Water Conservation Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3718/
Soil and Water Conservation Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3717/
Soil and Water Conservation Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3716/
Soil and Water Conservation Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3715/
Soil and Water Conservation Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3714/
Soil and Water Conservation Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3713/
Soil and Water Conservation Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2103/
Soil and Water Conservation Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2102/
Soil and Water Conservation Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2101/
Soil and Water Conservation Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2100/
Soil and Water Conservation Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2099/
Soil and Water Conservation Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1372/
Soil and Water Conservation Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1373/
Soil and Water Conservation Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1058/
Grazing Fees and Rangeland Management
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs519/
Federal Grazing Regulations: Public Lands Council v. Babbitt
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1065/
The Listing of a Species: Legal Definition and Biological Realities
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs23/
Federal Land Management Agencies: Background on Land and Resources Management
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8631/
Upper Mississippi River System: Proposals to Restore an Inland Waterway’s Ecosystem
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7778/
Wetlands and Agriculture: Policy Issues in the 1995 Farm Bill
Wetlands protection efforts have been a major concern for agricultural interests since Congress enacted so-called swampbuster provisions in the 1985 Food Security Act. Under these provisions, all producers who alter wetlands risk losing certain farm program benefits. Determining which sites are wetlands and enforcement of penalties remain contentious issues. Controversy has been heightened by confusion over how this program is related to the principal Federal regulatory program to protect wetlands, section 404 of the Clean Water Act, and how wetland determinations affect land values and private property rights. Because the 103rd Congress did not reauthorize the Clean Water Act, some of the wetland issues raised in that debate might be raised in the farm bill. Another wetland protection program, the Wetland Reserve (WRP), was enacted in the 1990 farm bill. This program, which pays farmers to place wetlands under long-term or permanent easements, has been far less controversial. This paper reviews the swampbuster and WRP, as well as controversies surrounding delineation of wetlands and relationships between private property rights and wetland protection efforts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs146/
Salvage Timber Sales and Forest Health
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs344/
Forest Service Timber Sale Practices and Procedures: Analysis of Alternative Systems
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs233/
Leasing of Energy and Mineral Resources on Federal Lands
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8792/
The Endangered Species Act and "Sound Science"
This report provides a context for evaluating legislative proposals through examples of how science has been used in selected cases, a discussion of the nature and role of science in general, and its role in the Endangered Species Act (ESA) process in particular, together with general and agency information quality requirements and policies, and a review of how the courts have viewed agency use of science. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9938/
Coastal Louisiana: Attempting to Restore an Ecosystem
Congress continues to consider legislative options to address wetlands loss in coastal Louisiana. Some legislative proposals would dedicate some federal revenues from offshore oil and gas development to restoration efforts. Other proposals would authorize specific restoration projects or activities, or further examination of the causes and effects of loss. These projects are neutralizing conditions that lead to loss at some sites, and are reestablishing some wetlands. These projects are expected to have many ecological, economic, and social benefits. A July 2004 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers report, a draft ecosystem restoration study, identifies more than 150 possible remedies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8893/
Clearcutting in the National Forests
Congressional interest in clearcutting has increased in the past few years. Several bills have been introduced in the current and preceding Congresses to ban the use of clearcutting and/or all even-aged management systems in the national forests. The issue, however, transcends the use of clearcutting and focuses on how to assure the choice of a silvicultural system and the implementation of the management practices that will achieve the stated goals for public land and resource management. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs34/
Brief Summaries of Federal Animal Protection Statutes
This report contains summaries of federal animal protection statutes, listed alphabetically. It does not include treaties, although it does include statutes enacted to implement treaties. It includes statutes concerning animals that are not entirely, or not at all, animal protection statutes. For example, it includes a statute authorizing the eradication of predators, because one of the statute's purposes is to protect domestic and "game" animals; and it includes statutes to conserve fish, although their ultimate purpose may not be for the fishes' benefit. It also includes statutes that allow the disabled to use service animals, and even includes statutes aimed at acts of animal rights advocates (the Animal Enterprise Protection Act of 1992, and the Recreational Hunting Safety and Preservation Act of 1994). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26053/
Wildfire Protection in the 108th Congress
The 2000 and 2002 fire seasons were, by most standards, among the worst in the past 50 years. Many argue that the threat of severe wildfires has grown in recent years because of unnaturally high fuel loads (e.g., dense undergrowth and dead trees), raising concerns about damage to property and homes in the wildland-urban interface (WUI) — forests near or surrounding homes. Debates about fire control and protection, including funding and fuel treatments (e.g., thinning and prescribed burning), have focused on national forests and other federal lands, but nonfederal lands are also at risk. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10033/
South Florida Ecosystem Restoration and the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10105/
South Florida Ecosystem Restoration and the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10133/
Energy and Mineral Issues in the FY2006 Budget Reconciliation Bill
Several resource issues that are designed to generate revenue for the federal Treasury have been proposed for the FY2006 budget reconciliation bill. The most controversial of these provisions recommended by the House Resources Committee and Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee would open part of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) for oil and gas development. The House panel also approved a provision that would allow coastal states to “opt out” of the current offshore oil and gas development moratoria, increase fees for hardrock mining and patents, dispose of certain federal lands, and begin an oil shale and tar sands leasing program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10130/
Soil and Water Conservation Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10068/
Soil and Water Conservation Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10120/
Soil and Water Conservation Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10118/
Soil and Water Conservation Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10119/
Energy and Mineral Issues in the FY2006 Budget Reconciliation Bill
Several resource issues that are designed to generate revenue for the federal Treasury have been proposed for the FY2006 budget reconciliation bill. The most controversial of these provisions recommended by the House Resources Committee and Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee would open part of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) for oil and gas development. The House panel also approved a provision that would allow coastal states to “opt out” of the current offshore oil and gas development moratoria, increase fees for hardrock mining and patents, dispose of certain federal lands, and begin an oil shale and tar sands leasing program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7960/
Wildfire Protection Funding
The severe 2000 fire season prompted a significant rise in funding for wildfire protection that has been sustained; wildfire appropriations in FY2005 were more than $2.9 billion. Most of the funds ($2.8 billion in FY2005) are to protect federal lands, with funds for reducing fuel loads, for equipment and training, for fighting fires, and for restoring burned sites. Federal funding ($98 million in FY2005) also supports state efforts to protect nonfederal lands. Some wildfire funding ($74 million in FY2005) is used for fire research, fire facilities, and programs to improve forest health. Congress continues to debate wildfire funding levels, with a growing focus on the cost of wildfire suppression. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7620/
Forest Fire/Wildfire Protection
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8266/
Forest Fire/Wildfire Protection
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8214/
Softwood Lumber Imports: The 1996 U.S.-Canada Agreement
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6357/
South Florida Ecosystem Restoration and the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5649/
South Florida Ecosystem Restoration and the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5648/
South Florida Ecosystem Restoration and the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3620/