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 Decade: 1990-1999
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The Chip Mill Industry in the South

The Chip Mill Industry in the South

Date: June 10, 1998
Creator: Gorte, Ross W
Description: Chip mills turn trees into chips for paper, particle-boards, and exports. While the federal government does not collect data on a chip mill industry, chip production in the South has apparently been expanding. The timber supply appears sufficient to allow some increased harvests, but could be depleted by continued industrial expansion. The federal government does not directly regulate timber cutting but could become engaged if requirements of the Clean Water and Endangered Species Acts were triggered. The government also has export promotion programs and export tax incentives. Recently, concerns have been expressed to Congress about the possible effects of clear-cutting for chip exports on water quality and wildlife habitat. This report will not be updated.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Sustainable Agriculture

Sustainable Agriculture

Date: October 25, 1995
Creator: Rawson, Jean M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Pacific Salmon and Anadromous Trout: Management Under the Endangered Species Act

Pacific Salmon and Anadromous Trout: Management Under the Endangered Species Act

Date: October 27, 1999
Creator: Buck, Eugene H & Dandelski, John R
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Northern Goshawk: Future Endangered Species?

The Northern Goshawk: Future Endangered Species?

Date: June 29, 1994
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clearcutting in the National Forests: Background and Overview

Clearcutting in the National Forests: Background and Overview

Date: November 6, 1998
Creator: Gorte, Ross W.
Description: This report provides background and an overview on clearcutting use in the National Forests and effects.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Endangered Species List Revisions: A Summary of Delisting and Downlisting

Endangered Species List Revisions: A Summary of Delisting and Downlisting

Date: January 5, 1998
Creator: Noecker, Robert J
Description: This report outlines the process and reasons for delisting or downlisting, and summarizes the 27 species delisted due to extinction, recovery, or data revision, and the 22 species that have been downlisted from endangered to threatened status due to stabilized or improving populations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Endangered Species Act Amendments: An Analysis of S. 1180 and H.R. 2351

Endangered Species Act Amendments: An Analysis of S. 1180 and H.R. 2351

Date: March 2, 1998
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela & Corn, M. Lynne
Description: Because of wide-spread interest in possible amendments to the Endangered Species Act (ESA), CRS has received numerous requests for an analysis and critique of S.1180 and H.R. 2351. This report analyzes those bills. HR. 2351 was introduced on July 31, 1997 and S. 1180 on September 16, 1997. Each bill is discussed under various topic headings. The Senate bill will be described first, since it has been reported.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Biosphere Reserves and the U.S. MAB Program

Biosphere Reserves and the U.S. MAB Program

Date: June 4, 1999
Creator: Fletcher, Susan R
Description: Since 1972, the United States has participated in the Man and the Biosphere Program (MAB), coordinated by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). In addition to the American Land Sovereignty Protection Act this report also discusses the legislation that would affect U.S. participation in the World Heritage Convention, under which World Heritage sites are recognized, and which include some of the sites recognized as biosphere reserves
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Alternative Sources of Wood for Japan

Alternative Sources of Wood for Japan

Date: August 25, 1994
Creator: Gorte, Ross W
Description: Japan is one of the world's largest wood importers, with two-thirds of its imports as logs (unprocessed timber). Southeast Asia has been the largest log supplier, but supplies (and exports to Japan) have been declining. The United States has become a more important supplier, but concerns about declining domestic timber supplies have led to proposals to prohibit or to tax log exports. Opponents suggest that Japan would simply turn to other sources to replace U.S. logs. One question in this debate is where the alternative sources of logs or wood products might be.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Amtrak and Energy Conservation: Background and Selected Public Policy Issues

Amtrak and Energy Conservation: Background and Selected Public Policy Issues

Date: January 19, 1999
Creator: Thompson, Stephen J
Description: A rationale for federal financial support to Amtrak has been that rail service conserves energy, compared to other forms of intercity passenger transportation. The numbers discussed in this report suggest that the rationale might not be valid with regard to autos and buses. The report discusses some public policy implications that could follow from that conclusion.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Amtrak and Energy Conservation in Intercity Passenger Transportation

Amtrak and Energy Conservation in Intercity Passenger Transportation

Date: September 3, 1996
Creator: Thompson, Stephen J
Description: A rationale for federal financial support to Amtrak has been that rail service conserves energy, compared to other forms of intercity passenger transportation. The numbers presented in this report suggest that the rationale might not be valid with regard to some alternative modes of transportation, and the report discusses some public policy implications that could follow from that conclusion.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
African Elephant Issues: CITES and CAMPFIRE

African Elephant Issues: CITES and CAMPFIRE

Date: August 5, 1997
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne & Fletcher, Susan R.
Description: The conservation of African elephants has been controversial recently on two fronts: the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES, to which the United States is a party), and a Zimbabwean program for sustainable development called CAMPFIRE, which is partially funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). Two controversies have sprung up recently about the African elephant. One is the changing status of this species under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), of which the United States is a signatory. The other is over a program in Zimbabwe called "CAMPFIRE." The partial funding of this program by the U.S. Agency for International Development has been criticized by animal welfare groups and some conservation groups, though it has been supported by other conservation groups as well as many hunting organizations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Ecosystems, Biomes, and Watersheds: Definitions and Use

Ecosystems, Biomes, and Watersheds: Definitions and Use

Date: July 14, 1993
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne
Description: This paper describes the meaning and applications of ecosystem and of the related terms watershed and biome. It discusses the pros and cons of all three as organizing principles for land management, and the major issues that are likely to arise in the debate over ecosystem management.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Restricting Softwood Log Exports: Policy and Legal Implications

Restricting Softwood Log Exports: Policy and Legal Implications

Date: August 13, 1993
Creator: Gorte, Ross W & Thomas, Kenneth R
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Forest Fires and Forest Health

Forest Fires and Forest Health

Date: June 7, 1996
Creator: Gorte, Ross W
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Wetland Mitigation Banking: Status and Prospects

Wetland Mitigation Banking: Status and Prospects

Date: September 12, 1997
Creator: Zinn, Jeffrey A
Description: Wetland protection is controversial because the federal government regulates activities on private lands and because the natural values at some of these regulated sites are being debated. This controversy pits property owners and development interests against environmentalists and others who seek to protect the remaining wetlands. Mitigation banking, which allows a person to degrade a wetland at one site if a wetland at another site is improved, has been identified as a potential answer to this shrill and seemingly intractable debate.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Survey of Grazing Programs in Western States

Survey of Grazing Programs in Western States

Date: January 30, 1996
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela & Cody, Betsy A
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Mexican Spotted Owls: Federal Protection

Mexican Spotted Owls: Federal Protection

Date: June 30, 1993
Creator: Heck, Jennifer A
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Mexican Wolf: Federal Protection

Mexican Wolf: Federal Protection

Date: October 21, 1993
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Wildlife Restoration Projects Fund

Wildlife Restoration Projects Fund

Date: May 2, 1997
Creator: Talley, Louis Alan
Description: Since 1937, a cooperative program between the federal and state governments has existed for wildlife restoration. This program provides federal grants-in-aid to state agencies for conservation through land and water management for wild birds and mammals. While up to 8% of the collected revenues from excise taxes dedicated to the program may be retained by the federal government for administration, all remaining funds are apportioned to the states and territories for use either in wildlife restoration or hunter safety and education programs. Wildlife restoration programs receive all funds generated from the excise tax on firearms other than pistols and revolvers and all funds collected from shells and cartridges. Additionally, one-half of the excise taxes collected from pistols, revolvers, and archery equipment goes for wildlife restoration purposes. Hunter safety and education programs are funded from the remaining half of excise taxes collected on pistols, revolvers, and archery equipment. The states have been authorized by law to use hunter safety and education funds for wildlife restoration projects.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Grazing Fees: An Overview

Grazing Fees: An Overview

Date: May 21, 1996
Creator: Cody, Betsy A.
Description: This report briefly discusses charging fees for grazing private livestock on federal lands, which is a long-standing but contentious practice. Generally, livestock producers who use federal lands want to keep fees low, while conservation groups and others believe fees should be raised to approximate "fair market value."
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Sales of Natural Resources: Pricing and Allocation Mechanisms (1998)

Federal Sales of Natural Resources: Pricing and Allocation Mechanisms (1998)

Date: December 11, 1998
Creator: Gorte, Ross W
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Below-Cost Timber Sales: An Overview

Below-Cost Timber Sales: An Overview

Date: December 20, 1994
Creator: Gorte, Ross W
Description: The Forest Service sells some timber at prices that are less than the agency costs to administer the timber program. This report discusses these "below-cost" timber sales that have been debated by Congress for more than a decade, but no policy to address the issue has been adopted legislatively or administratively.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Biological Diversity: Issues Related to the Convention on Biodiversity

Biological Diversity: Issues Related to the Convention on Biodiversity

Date: May 15, 1995
Creator: Fletcher, Susan R
Description: This report discusses treaty on biodiversity, issues, history and current status.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department