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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea: Living Resources Provisions
This report describes provisions of the Law of the Sea Convention relating to living marine resources and discusses how these provisions comport with current U.S. marine policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103166/
Alternative Sources of Wood for Japan
Japan is one of the world's largest wood importers, with two-thirds of its imports as logs (unprocessed timber). Southeast Asia has been the largest log supplier, but supplies (and exports to Japan) have been declining. The United States has become a more important supplier, but concerns about declining domestic timber supplies have led to proposals to prohibit or to tax log exports. Opponents suggest that Japan would simply turn to other sources to replace U.S. logs. One question in this debate is where the alternative sources of logs or wood products might be. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs143/
African Elephant Issues: CITES and CAMPFIRE
The conservation of African elephants has been controversial recently on two fronts: the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES, to which the United States is a party), and a Zimbabwean program for sustainable development called CAMPFIRE, which is partially funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). Two controversies have sprung up recently about the African elephant. One is the changing status of this species under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), of which the United States is a signatory. The other is over a program in Zimbabwe called "CAMPFIRE." The partial funding of this program by the U.S. Agency for International Development has been criticized by animal welfare groups and some conservation groups, though it has been supported by other conservation groups as well as many hunting organizations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs388/
Federal Funding for Wildfire Control and Management
This report looks at four issues dominating wildfire funding debates: the high cost of fire management, funding for fuel reduction, the federal role in protecting nonfederal lands, and post-fire rehabilitation. The Forest Service (FS) and the Department of the Interior (DOI) are responsible for protecting most federal lands from wildfires, however, many in Congress are concerned that wildfire costs are spiraling upward without a reduction in damages. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96772/
Federal Land Ownership: Overview and Data
Numerous issues affecting federal land management are before Congress. They include the extent of federal ownership, and whether to decrease, maintain, or increase the amount of federal holdings; the condition of currently owned federal infrastructure and lands, and the priority of their maintenance versus new acquisitions; the optimal balance between land use and protection, and whether federal lands should be managed primarily to produce national or local benefits; and border control on federal lands along the southwest border. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87210/
Biosafety Protocol for Genetically Modified Organisms: Overview
This report presents a background on Biosafety Protocol for genetically modified organisms and an overview of Biosafety Protocol negotiations, key provisions and related issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1886/
Biosphere Reserves and the U.S. MAB Program
Since 1972, the United States has participated in the Man and the Biosphere Program (MAB), coordinated by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). In addition to the American Land Sovereignty Protection Act this report also discusses the legislation that would affect U.S. participation in the World Heritage Convention, under which World Heritage sites are recognized, and which include some of the sites recognized as biosphere reserves digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1013/
Biosafety Protocol for Genetically Modified Organisms: Overview
The Biosafety Protocol to the 1992 Convention on biological Diversity, adopted in early 2000, addresses the safe handling, transfer, and trade of biological organisms. The Protocol sets forth procedures and rules concerning trade in biological products, including genetically modified organisms (GMOs) that have engendered controversy, especially when they are used as agricultural crops. These rules are of key importance to U.S. economic interests in agriculture as well as those dealing in other genetically modified organisms. This report provides a brief summary of the key provisions of the Protocol and the major issues associated with them. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1271/
The Availability of Nonfuel Minerals on Federal Lands: Background on the Issue
The following report reviews the laws and practices that govern the extraction of non-fuel minerals from federal lands, and the restrict ions against such extract ions. Moreover, the federal land management agencies that regulate such activities are identified, and their responsibilities discussed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8508/
Grazing Fees: An Overview
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs281/
Survey of Grazing Programs in Western States
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Wildfire Damages to Homes and Resources: Understanding Causes and Reducing Losses
Wildfires are getting more severe, with more acres and houses burned and more people at risk. This results from excess biomass in the forests, due to past logging and grazing and a century of fire suppression, combined with an expanding wild land-urban interface-more people and houses in and near the forests-and climate change, exacerbating drought and insect and disease problems. This report looks at the causes of wildfires, and the pros and cons of their treatment. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84087/
Endangered Species List Revisions: A Summary of Delisting and Downlisting
This report outlines the process and reasons for delisting or downlisting, and summarizes the 27 species delisted due to extinction, recovery, or data revision, and the 22 species that have been downlisted from endangered to threatened status due to stabilized or improving populations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs531/
Endangered Species Act Amendments: An Analysis of S. 1180 and H.R. 2351
Because of wide-spread interest in possible amendments to the Endangered Species Act (ESA), CRS has received numerous requests for an analysis and critique of S.1180 and H.R. 2351. This report analyzes those bills. HR. 2351 was introduced on July 31, 1997 and S. 1180 on September 16, 1997. Each bill is discussed under various topic headings. The Senate bill will be described first, since it has been reported. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs530/
Wildlife Restoration Projects Fund
Since 1937, a cooperative program between the federal and state governments has existed for wildlife restoration. This program provides federal grants-in-aid to state agencies for conservation through land and water management for wild birds and mammals. While up to 8% of the collected revenues from excise taxes dedicated to the program may be retained by the federal government for administration, all remaining funds are apportioned to the states and territories for use either in wildlife restoration or hunter safety and education programs. Wildlife restoration programs receive all funds generated from the excise tax on firearms other than pistols and revolvers and all funds collected from shells and cartridges. Additionally, one-half of the excise taxes collected from pistols, revolvers, and archery equipment goes for wildlife restoration purposes. Hunter safety and education programs are funded from the remaining half of excise taxes collected on pistols, revolvers, and archery equipment. The states have been authorized by law to use hunter safety and education funds for wildlife restoration projects. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs386/
Mexican Wolf: Federal Protection
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs48/
Mexican Spotted Owls: Federal Protection
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Restricting Softwood Log Exports: Policy and Legal Implications
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs71/
Ecosystems, Biomes, and Watersheds: Definitions and Use
This paper describes the meaning and applications of ecosystem and of the related terms watershed and biome. It discusses the pros and cons of all three as organizing principles for land management, and the major issues that are likely to arise in the debate over ecosystem management. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs70/
Forest Fires and Forest Health
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs345/
Mercury in the Environment: Sources and Health Risks
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6260/
Mercury in the Environment: Sources and Health Risks
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5935/
Paleontological Resources Preservation Act: Proposal for the Management and Protection of Fossil Resources Located on Federal Lands
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8435/
The Impact of Hurricane Katrina on Biological Resources
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8477/
Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Lands and National Forests
The 109th Congress is considering issues related to the public lands managed by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the national forests managed by the Forest Service (FS). The Administration is addressing issues through budgetary, regulatory, and other actions. Several key issues of congressional and administrative interest are covered here. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8548/
Grazing Fees: An Overview and Current Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8904/
Upper Mississippi River System: Proposals to Restore an Inland Waterway's Ecosystem
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Mining on Federal Lands
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10097/
The Helium-3 Shortage: Supply, Demand, and Options for Congress
The world is experiencing a shortage of helium-3, a rare isotope of helium with applications in homeland security, national security, medicine, industry, and science. Federal officials have testified that the shortage is acute and, unless alternatives are found, will affect federal investments in homeland security, scientific research, and other areas. This report discusses the nature of the shortage; federal actions undertaken so far to address it; current and potential sources of helium-3 and options for increasing the supply; current and projected uses of helium-3 and options for reducing the demand; and options for allocating the supply if it continues to fall short of demand. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31373/
Forestry in the Farm Bill
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7974/
The Impact of Hurricane Katrina on Biological Resources
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Hemp as an Agricultural Commodity
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7429/
Federal Land Management Agencies: Background on Land and Resource Management
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1889/
Mining on Federal Lands
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5195/
Hemp as an Agricultural Commodity
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6287/
Mining on Federal Lands
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Mining on Federal Lands
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3288/
Mining on Federal Lands
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Mining on Federal Lands
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Public (BLM) Lands and National Forests
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5185/
Wetland Mitigation Banking: Status and Prospects
Wetland protection is controversial because the federal government regulates activities on private lands and because the natural values at some of these regulated sites are being debated. This controversy pits property owners and development interests against environmentalists and others who seek to protect the remaining wetlands. Mitigation banking, which allows a person to degrade a wetland at one site if a wetland at another site is improved, has been identified as a potential answer to this shrill and seemingly intractable debate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs474/
Public (BLM) Lands and National Forests
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5177/
Public (BLM) Lands and National Forests
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Public (BLM) Lands and National Forests
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Public (BLM) Lands and National Forests
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3284/
Public (BLM) Lands and National Forests
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Public (BLM) Lands and National Forests
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Public (BLM) Lands and National Forests
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3281/
Public (BLM) Lands and National Forests
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5184/
Public (BLM) Lands and National Forests
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5183/