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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The Endangered Species Act: Consideration of Economic Factors

The Endangered Species Act: Consideration of Economic Factors

Date: January 5, 2001
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: The Endangered Species Act (ESA) provides for the listing and protection of species that are found to be “endangered” or “threatened” – species that might become extinct. The listing of a species as endangered triggers the prohibitions in the Act against “taking” (killing or harming) individuals of the protected species, unless a permit is obtained to take individuals incidental to an otherwise lawful proposed action, or an exemption for the proposed action is obtained. Unauthorized taking of a listed species can result in civil or criminal penalties. These prohibitions and potential penalties can affect various activities, including development and use of land, with attendant economic impacts.
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Forest Fire Protection

Forest Fire Protection

Date: December 5, 2000
Creator: Gorte, Ross W
Description: None
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Endangered Species: Continuing Controversy

Endangered Species: Continuing Controversy

Date: November 21, 2000
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne
Description: The Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA) has been one of the most controversial of all environmental laws. Undoubtedly, the controversy stems from the strict substantive provisions of this law compared to many other environmental laws which tend to be more procedurally oriented or to permit greater administrative discretion. As a result of the ESA’s standards, the Act often plays a role in disputes in which all sides agree that a given species is not the center of the debate.
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NASA's Earth Science Enterprise

NASA's Earth Science Enterprise

Date: September 14, 2000
Creator: Hatch, Erin C
Description: None
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Soil and Water Conservation Issues

Soil and Water Conservation Issues

Date: August 28, 2000
Creator: Zinn, Jeffrey A
Description: None
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The National Forest Roadless Area Initiative

The National Forest Roadless Area Initiative

Date: August 22, 2000
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Timber Harvesting and Forest Fires - Memorandum

Timber Harvesting and Forest Fires - Memorandum

Date: August 22, 2000
Creator: Gorte, Ross W
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Biosafety Protocol for Genetically Modified Organisms: Overview

Biosafety Protocol for Genetically Modified Organisms: Overview

Date: July 5, 2000
Creator: Segarra, Alejandro E
Description: The Biosafety Protocol to the 1992 Convention on biological Diversity, adopted in early 2000, addresses the safe handling, transfer, and trade of biological organisms. The Protocol sets forth procedures and rules concerning trade in biological products, including genetically modified organisms (GMOs) that have engendered controversy, especially when they are used as agricultural crops. These rules are of key importance to U.S. economic interests in agriculture as well as those dealing in other genetically modified organisms. This report provides a brief summary of the key provisions of the Protocol and the major issues associated with them.
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The Natural Resources and Environment Function in the FY2001 Federal Budget: An Overview of Programs and Funding

The Natural Resources and Environment Function in the FY2001 Federal Budget: An Overview of Programs and Funding

Date: April 17, 2000
Creator: Bearden, David M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Forest Service Accountability in Administering Its Trust Funds

Forest Service Accountability in Administering Its Trust Funds

Date: March 8, 2000
Creator: Gorte, Ross W.
Description: The USDA Forest Service has numerous permanently appropriated trust funds and special funds that provide substantial funding independent of the annual appropriations process. Critics have alleged abuse of the funds and have sought greater congressional oversight, and the General Accounting Office has testified on the agency’s management of some of these accounts. While the Administration has offered few responses to the criticisms of these funds, it has, in its FY2001 budget request, proposed creating two new trust funds and combining several existing funds into a new fund with expanded purposes. This report provides an overview of the permanently appropriated Forest Service accounts and concerns over their use and proposed alternative structures that could provide greater public and congressional oversight and control over permanently appropriated funds.
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The Administration's Lands Legacy Initiative in the FY2001 Budget Proposal - A Fact Sheet

The Administration's Lands Legacy Initiative in the FY2001 Budget Proposal - A Fact Sheet

Date: February 14, 2000
Creator: Zinn, Jeffrey A.
Description: The fact sheet compares the FY2001 funding request for the Administration's Lands Legacy Initiative to the FY2000 request and the enacted FY2000 appropriation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Grazing Regulations: Public Lands Council v. Babbitt

Federal Grazing Regulations: Public Lands Council v. Babbitt

Date: February 1, 2000
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: This report discusses new regulations on livestock grazing on lands managed by the Bureau of Land Management became effective August 21, 1995. Many aspects of the new regulations were challenged in Public Lands Council v. Babbitt. A federal district court upheld many of the regulations, but struck down four of them and enjoined their implementation. At the appellate level, only the new regulation allowing conservation use to the exclusion of livestock grazing for the full term of a permit was held invalid. The Supreme Court has agreed to hear the case and argument has been set for March 1, 2000.
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The Natural Resources and Environment Function in the FY2000 Federal Budget: A Description of Programs and Funding

The Natural Resources and Environment Function in the FY2000 Federal Budget: A Description of Programs and Funding

Date: January 14, 2000
Creator: Bearden, David M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Weatherization Assistance Program: A Fact Sheet

The Weatherization Assistance Program: A Fact Sheet

Date: December 8, 1999
Creator: Butler, Alice D
Description: None
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The President's Forest/Roadless Area Initiative

The President's Forest/Roadless Area Initiative

Date: October 28, 1999
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Pacific Salmon and Anadromous Trout: Management Under the Endangered Species Act

Pacific Salmon and Anadromous Trout: Management Under the Endangered Species Act

Date: October 27, 1999
Creator: Buck, Eugene H & Dandelski, John R
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Pacific Salmon Treaty: The 1999 Agreement in Historical Perspective

The Pacific Salmon Treaty: The 1999 Agreement in Historical Perspective

Date: October 18, 1999
Creator: Waldeck, Daniel A & Buck, Eugene H
Description: None
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The Mining Law Millsite Debate

The Mining Law Millsite Debate

Date: September 14, 1999
Creator: Humphries, Marc
Description: None
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The Role of Designation of Critical Habitat under the Endangered Species Act

The Role of Designation of Critical Habitat under the Endangered Species Act

Date: July 16, 1999
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Natural Resources: Assessing Nonmarket Values through Contingent Valuation

Natural Resources: Assessing Nonmarket Values through Contingent Valuation

Date: June 21, 1999
Creator: Breedlove, Joseph & Gorte, Ross W
Description: None
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Biosphere Reserves and the U.S. MAB Program

Biosphere Reserves and the U.S. MAB Program

Date: June 4, 1999
Creator: Fletcher, Susan R
Description: Since 1972, the United States has participated in the Man and the Biosphere Program (MAB), coordinated by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). In addition to the American Land Sovereignty Protection Act this report also discusses the legislation that would affect U.S. participation in the World Heritage Convention, under which World Heritage sites are recognized, and which include some of the sites recognized as biosphere reserves
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Roadless Areas: The Administration's Moratorium

Roadless Areas: The Administration's Moratorium

Date: April 8, 1999
Creator: Gorte, Ross W
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Land Ownership: Constitutional Authority; the History of Acquisition, Disposal, and Retention; and Current Acquisition and Disposal Authorities

Federal Land Ownership: Constitutional Authority; the History of Acquisition, Disposal, and Retention; and Current Acquisition and Disposal Authorities

Date: April 7, 1999
Creator: Gorte, Ross W & Baldwin, Pamela
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Amtrak and Energy Conservation: Background and Selected Public Policy Issues

Amtrak and Energy Conservation: Background and Selected Public Policy Issues

Date: January 19, 1999
Creator: Thompson, Stephen J
Description: A rationale for federal financial support to Amtrak has been that rail service conserves energy, compared to other forms of intercity passenger transportation. The numbers discussed in this report suggest that the rationale might not be valid with regard to autos and buses. The report discusses some public policy implications that could follow from that conclusion.
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