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 Decade: 1990-1999
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Clearcutting in the National Forests

Clearcutting in the National Forests

Date: July 29, 1992
Creator: Backiel, Adela & Gorte, Ross W
Description: Congressional interest in clearcutting has increased in the past few years. Several bills have been introduced in the current and preceding Congresses to ban the use of clearcutting and/or all even-aged management systems in the national forests. The issue, however, transcends the use of clearcutting and focuses on how to assure the choice of a silvicultural system and the implementation of the management practices that will achieve the stated goals for public land and resource management.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Deforestation: An Overview of Global Programs and Agreements

Deforestation: An Overview of Global Programs and Agreements

Date: October 21, 1992
Creator: Lyke, Julie & Fletcher, Susan R
Description: In recent years, global environmental concerns have figured prominently on the American political agenda. In particular, tropical deforestation and its implications for global climate change and biological diversity loss have prompted public outcry. Concerns have since grown to include other forest types as well. The Congress has considered a variety of legislation to stem the tide of increasing deforestation and the United States has supported a number of bilateral and multilateral initiatives to assist other countries in managing their forest resources.
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The Listing of a Species: Legal Definition and Biological Realities

The Listing of a Species: Legal Definition and Biological Realities

Date: December 15, 1992
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Endangered Species Act and Private Property

The Endangered Species Act and Private Property

Date: March 7, 1993
Creator: Meltz, Robert
Description: If the 103rd Congress embarks upon an effort to reauthorize the Endangered Species Act (ESA), it will run into an old acquaintance: the property rights issue. As now written, the ESA has at least the potential to curtail property rights (whatever its actual impact as implemented may be). This report explores the legal repercussions of those impacts, especially whether they constitute takings of property under the fifth amendment of the U.S. Constitution.
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Biotechnology, Indigenous Peoples, and Intellectual Property Rights

Biotechnology, Indigenous Peoples, and Intellectual Property Rights

Date: April 16, 1993
Creator: Axt, Josephie R; Lee, Margaret Mikyung & Ackerman, David M
Description: This report examines intellectual property right in pharmaceuticals in a particular context, namely, medicinal products and processes derived from the biodiversity resources of areas inhabited by indigenous peoples. This report discusses the international law regarding intellectual property rights in traditional knowledge and the American laws regarding traditional knowledge.
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Mexican Spotted Owls: Federal Protection

Mexican Spotted Owls: Federal Protection

Date: June 30, 1993
Creator: Heck, Jennifer A
Description: None
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Ecosystems, Biomes, and Watersheds: Definitions and Use

Ecosystems, Biomes, and Watersheds: Definitions and Use

Date: July 14, 1993
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne
Description: This paper describes the meaning and applications of ecosystem and of the related terms watershed and biome. It discusses the pros and cons of all three as organizing principles for land management, and the major issues that are likely to arise in the debate over ecosystem management.
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Restricting Softwood Log Exports: Policy and Legal Implications

Restricting Softwood Log Exports: Policy and Legal Implications

Date: August 13, 1993
Creator: Gorte, Ross W & Thomas, Kenneth R
Description: None
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Mexican Wolf: Federal Protection

Mexican Wolf: Federal Protection

Date: October 21, 1993
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne
Description: None
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Trade and Environment: Treatment in Recent Agreements--GATT and NAFTA

Trade and Environment: Treatment in Recent Agreements--GATT and NAFTA

Date: February 24, 1994
Creator: Fletcher, Susan R. & Tiemann, Mary
Description: This report reviews some of the concerns surrounding the environment work program and other environmental issues. It briefly describes work underway in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and current thinking underlying development of U.S. positions on trade and the environment in the GATT.
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Market-Based Environmental Management: Issues in Implementation

Market-Based Environmental Management: Issues in Implementation

Date: March 7, 1994
Creator: Moore, John L.; Blodgett, John E.; Copeland, Claudia; Gushee, David E.; Mayer, Susan L.; McCarthy, James E. et al.
Description: Increasingly, efforts to protect integral features of the natural environment that are essential to human well being face a double challenge. First, the magnitude of some conventional and emerging threats to environmental quality is growing, despite solid progress in controlling some causes. This is particularly the concern on a global scale in terms of atmospheric changes and loss of biological diversity. Second, easily-implemented uniform control methods using feasible technologies or other direct regulatory approaches are already in place for many pollution and resource management problems in the United States. Additional progress with so-called command and control policies can be expensive and disruptive, and thus counter productive to overall economic well being. This type of dilemma is common where environmental deterioration results from diffuse and complex causes inherent in technically-advanced high-consumption industrial societies such as the U.S. Solutions to these types of environmental problems are complicated by the diffuse benefits which obscures the net gains of additional controls that have concentrated and highly visible costs. Given this double bind, many policy analysts and academics have for years advocated more cost-effective and flexible approaches relying on market forces to further some environmental management objectives. Although market-based theory and practical environmental policy are ...
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Mining Law Reform: The Impact of a Royalty

Mining Law Reform: The Impact of a Royalty

Date: May 12, 1994
Creator: Humphries, Marc
Description: None
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The Northern Goshawk: Future Endangered Species?

The Northern Goshawk: Future Endangered Species?

Date: June 29, 1994
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne
Description: None
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The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species: Its Past and Future

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species: Its Past and Future

Date: August 24, 1994
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne
Description: This report discusses the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). It is divided into six sections: Introduction, Background, CITES and the Endangered Species Act, Implementation, Upcoming Events, and Appendices.
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Alternative Sources of Wood for Japan

Alternative Sources of Wood for Japan

Date: August 25, 1994
Creator: Gorte, Ross W
Description: Japan is one of the world's largest wood importers, with two-thirds of its imports as logs (unprocessed timber). Southeast Asia has been the largest log supplier, but supplies (and exports to Japan) have been declining. The United States has become a more important supplier, but concerns about declining domestic timber supplies have led to proposals to prohibit or to tax log exports. Opponents suggest that Japan would simply turn to other sources to replace U.S. logs. One question in this debate is where the alternative sources of logs or wood products might be.
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Mahoganies: International Protection?

Mahoganies: International Protection?

Date: October 20, 1994
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne
Description: None
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Wetlands and Agriculture: Policy Issues in the 1995 Farm Bill

Wetlands and Agriculture: Policy Issues in the 1995 Farm Bill

Date: December 19, 1994
Creator: Zinn, Jeffrey A
Description: Wetlands protection efforts have been a major concern for agricultural interests since Congress enacted so-called swampbuster provisions in the 1985 Food Security Act. Under these provisions, all producers who alter wetlands risk losing certain farm program benefits. Determining which sites are wetlands and enforcement of penalties remain contentious issues. Controversy has been heightened by confusion over how this program is related to the principal Federal regulatory program to protect wetlands, section 404 of the Clean Water Act, and how wetland determinations affect land values and private property rights. Because the 103rd Congress did not reauthorize the Clean Water Act, some of the wetland issues raised in that debate might be raised in the farm bill. Another wetland protection program, the Wetland Reserve (WRP), was enacted in the 1990 farm bill. This program, which pays farmers to place wetlands under long-term or permanent easements, has been far less controversial. This paper reviews the swampbuster and WRP, as well as controversies surrounding delineation of wetlands and relationships between private property rights and wetland protection efforts.
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Below-Cost Timber Sales: An Overview

Below-Cost Timber Sales: An Overview

Date: December 20, 1994
Creator: Gorte, Ross W
Description: The Forest Service sells some timber at prices that are less than the agency costs to administer the timber program. This report discusses these "below-cost" timber sales that have been debated by Congress for more than a decade, but no policy to address the issue has been adopted legislatively or administratively.
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An Overview of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE)

An Overview of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE)

Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Radzanowski, David P & Garber, Stephen J
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Ecosystem Management Tools and Techniques: Proceedings of a CRS Workshop

Ecosystem Management Tools and Techniques: Proceedings of a CRS Workshop

Date: March 27, 1995
Creator: Morrissey, Wayne A
Description: The House Subcommittee on Technology, Environment, and Aviation of the House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology (103rd Congress) requested that Congressional Research Service (CRS) hold a workshop on the tools and techniques of ecosystem management. The purposes of this workshop were to demonstrate tools and techniques used in scientific research on ecosystems and to address technological aspects of developing and administering a national policy for ecosystem management.
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Deep Seabed Mining: U.S. Interests and the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea

Deep Seabed Mining: U.S. Interests and the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea

Date: April 7, 1995
Creator: Mielke, James E
Description: On July 29, 1994, the United States signed the Agreement Relating to the Implementation of Part XI of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982. This agreement substantially reforms the seabed mining provisions of the 1982 Convention, which the United States found objectionable. In signing the Agreement, President Clinton accepted provisional application of it which enables the United States to participate in the International Seabed Authority (ISA) and its organs and bodies. On November 16, 1994, the U.N. Law of the Sea Convention entered into force without accession by the United States.The treaty document was referred to the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations late in the 103d Congress and awaits committee action in the 104th Congress.
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Natural Resource "Subsidy" Issues

Natural Resource "Subsidy" Issues

Date: April 27, 1995
Creator: Gorte, Ross W
Description: None
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Biological Diversity: Issues Related to the Convention on Biodiversity

Biological Diversity: Issues Related to the Convention on Biodiversity

Date: May 15, 1995
Creator: Fletcher, Susan R
Description: This report discusses treaty on biodiversity, issues, history and current status.
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Biological Diversity Treaty: Fact Sheet

Biological Diversity Treaty: Fact Sheet

Date: May 16, 1995
Creator: Fletcher, Susan R.
Description: As human activity continues to change and modify natural areas, widespread extinctions of plants, animals, and other types of species result. In 1992, negotiations conducted under the auspices of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) were completed on a comprehensive global treaty to protect biological diversity (biodiversity). In June 1993, President Clinton signed the treaty and sent it to the Senate for advice and consent. It is not pending in the Senate. The treaty entered into force on December 29, 1993. As of May 15, 1995, 118 nations had ratified the treaty.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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