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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
International Forest Agreements: Current Status
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs194/
NASA's Earth Science Enterprise
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1216/
Mercury in the Environment: Sources and Health Risks
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5935/
Mercury in the Environment: Sources and Health Risks
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6260/
Deep Seabed Mining: U.S. Interests and the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea
On July 29, 1994, the United States signed the Agreement Relating to the Implementation of Part XI of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982. This agreement substantially reforms the seabed mining provisions of the 1982 Convention, which the United States found objectionable. In signing the Agreement, President Clinton accepted provisional application of it which enables the United States to participate in the International Seabed Authority (ISA) and its organs and bodies. On November 16, 1994, the U.N. Law of the Sea Convention entered into force without accession by the United States.The treaty document was referred to the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations late in the 103d Congress and awaits committee action in the 104th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs230/
Agreements to Promote Fishery Conservation and Management in International Waters
Declining fish populations threaten an important food source. Natural catastrophes, pollution, habitat destruction, and overfishing contribute to the depletion of fish stocks. Overexploitation of fishery resources often occurs when management allows expanding and increasingly efficient fishing fleets to continue harvesting dwindling supplies. Although prevalent, overexploitation is not universal and its extent varies among areas, species, and fisheries. This report discusses the issue of overfishing and its possible consequences, as well as domestic and international efforts to combat overfishing. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs341/
Marine Dead Zones: Understanding the Problem
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Deforestation: An Overview of Global Programs and Agreements
In recent years, global environmental concerns have figured prominently on the American political agenda. In particular, tropical deforestation and its implications for global climate change and biological diversity loss have prompted public outcry. Concerns have since grown to include other forest types as well. The Congress has considered a variety of legislation to stem the tide of increasing deforestation and the United States has supported a number of bilateral and multilateral initiatives to assist other countries in managing their forest resources. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs35/
Clearcutting in the National Forests
Congressional interest in clearcutting has increased in the past few years. Several bills have been introduced in the current and preceding Congresses to ban the use of clearcutting and/or all even-aged management systems in the national forests. The issue, however, transcends the use of clearcutting and focuses on how to assure the choice of a silvicultural system and the implementation of the management practices that will achieve the stated goals for public land and resource management. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs34/
Ecosystems, Biomes, and Watersheds: Definitions and Use
This paper describes the meaning and applications of ecosystem and of the related terms watershed and biome. It discusses the pros and cons of all three as organizing principles for land management, and the major issues that are likely to arise in the debate over ecosystem management. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs70/
Mining Law Reform: The Impact of a Royalty
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs142/
Restricting Softwood Log Exports: Policy and Legal Implications
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs71/
Mahoganies: International Protection?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs144/
Alternative Sources of Wood for Japan
Japan is one of the world's largest wood importers, with two-thirds of its imports as logs (unprocessed timber). Southeast Asia has been the largest log supplier, but supplies (and exports to Japan) have been declining. The United States has become a more important supplier, but concerns about declining domestic timber supplies have led to proposals to prohibit or to tax log exports. Opponents suggest that Japan would simply turn to other sources to replace U.S. logs. One question in this debate is where the alternative sources of logs or wood products might be. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs143/
Forest Service Timber Sale Practices and Procedures: Analysis of Alternative Systems
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs233/
Below-Cost Timber Sales: An Overview
The Forest Service sells some timber at prices that are less than the agency costs to administer the timber program. This report discusses these "below-cost" timber sales that have been debated by Congress for more than a decade, but no policy to address the issue has been adopted legislatively or administratively. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs145/
The Federal Helium Program: The Reaction Over an Inert Gas
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An Overview of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE)
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs232/
Salvage Timber Sales and Forest Health
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs344/
Forest Fires and Forest Health
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Forest Health: Overview
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs748/
Biological Diversity: Issues Related to the Convention on Biodiversity
This report discusses treaty on biodiversity, issues, history and current status. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs235/
Wetlands and Agriculture: Policy Issues in the 1995 Farm Bill
Wetlands protection efforts have been a major concern for agricultural interests since Congress enacted so-called swampbuster provisions in the 1985 Food Security Act. Under these provisions, all producers who alter wetlands risk losing certain farm program benefits. Determining which sites are wetlands and enforcement of penalties remain contentious issues. Controversy has been heightened by confusion over how this program is related to the principal Federal regulatory program to protect wetlands, section 404 of the Clean Water Act, and how wetland determinations affect land values and private property rights. Because the 103rd Congress did not reauthorize the Clean Water Act, some of the wetland issues raised in that debate might be raised in the farm bill. Another wetland protection program, the Wetland Reserve (WRP), was enacted in the 1990 farm bill. This program, which pays farmers to place wetlands under long-term or permanent easements, has been far less controversial. This paper reviews the swampbuster and WRP, as well as controversies surrounding delineation of wetlands and relationships between private property rights and wetland protection efforts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs146/
The Rural Abandoned Mine Program - A Fact Sheet
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs236/
An Introduction to Major Natural Resource Issues in the 104th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs346/
The "Timber Rider": Section 2001 of the Rescissions Act
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Biosphere Reserves: Fact Sheet
Since 1972, the United States has participated in the Man and the Biosphere Program (MAB), coordinated by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). This report presents a background on the criteria for Biosphere Reserves, designation process and the policy implications of designation/recognition. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs472/
The Salvage Timber Sale Rider: Overview and Policy Issues
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Wetland Mitigation Banking: Status and Prospects
Wetland protection is controversial because the federal government regulates activities on private lands and because the natural values at some of these regulated sites are being debated. This controversy pits property owners and development interests against environmentalists and others who seek to protect the remaining wetlands. Mitigation banking, which allows a person to degrade a wetland at one site if a wetland at another site is improved, has been identified as a potential answer to this shrill and seemingly intractable debate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs474/
Federal Land Management: Appeals and Litigation
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Federal Timber Harvests: Implications for U.S. Timber Supply
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs749/
The Chip Mill Industry in the South
Chip mills turn trees into chips for paper, particle-boards, and exports. While the federal government does not collect data on a chip mill industry, chip production in the South has apparently been expanding. The timber supply appears sufficient to allow some increased harvests, but could be depleted by continued industrial expansion. The federal government does not directly regulate timber cutting but could become engaged if requirements of the Clean Water and Endangered Species Acts were triggered. The government also has export promotion programs and export tax incentives. Recently, concerns have been expressed to Congress about the possible effects of clear-cutting for chip exports on water quality and wildlife habitat. This report will not be updated. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs750/
Federal Sales of Natural Resources: Pricing and Allocation Mechanisms (1998)
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs751/
Protecting Natural Resources and Managing Growth: Issues in the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1883/
Protecting Natural Resources and Managing Growth: Issues in the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3275/
Protecting Natural Resources and Managing Growth: Issues in the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3276/
Protecting Natural Resources and Managing Growth: Issues in the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3277/
Protecting Natural Resources and Managing Growth: Issues in the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3278/
Protecting Natural Resources and Managing Growth: Issues in the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3279/
Protecting Natural Resources and Managing Growth: Issues in the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3280/
Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Lands and National Forests
In the second session, Congress continues to confront an array of issues related to the public lands managed by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the national forests managed by the U.S. Forest Service (FS). The Administration continues to address public lands and national forests through budgetary, regulatory, and other actions. Several key issues of ongoing congressional and administrative interest are covered in this report. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6014/
Public (BLM) Lands and National Forests
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1884/
Public (BLM) Lands and National Forests
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3281/
Public (BLM) Lands and National Forests
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3282/
Public (BLM) Lands and National Forests
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3283/
Public (BLM) Lands and National Forests
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3284/
Public (BLM) Lands and National Forests
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3285/
Public (BLM) Lands and National Forests
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3286/
Public (BLM) Lands and National Forests
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5177/
Public (BLM) Lands and National Forests
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5178/