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 Decade: 1990-1999
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Biotechnology, Indigenous Peoples, and Intellectual Property Rights

Biotechnology, Indigenous Peoples, and Intellectual Property Rights

Date: April 16, 1993
Creator: Axt, Josephie R; Lee, Margaret Mikyung & Ackerman, David M
Description: This report examines intellectual property right in pharmaceuticals in a particular context, namely, medicinal products and processes derived from the biodiversity resources of areas inhabited by indigenous peoples. This report discusses the international law regarding intellectual property rights in traditional knowledge and the American laws regarding traditional knowledge.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clearcutting in the National Forests

Clearcutting in the National Forests

Date: July 29, 1992
Creator: Backiel, Adela & Gorte, Ross W
Description: Congressional interest in clearcutting has increased in the past few years. Several bills have been introduced in the current and preceding Congresses to ban the use of clearcutting and/or all even-aged management systems in the national forests. The issue, however, transcends the use of clearcutting and focuses on how to assure the choice of a silvicultural system and the implementation of the management practices that will achieve the stated goals for public land and resource management.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Land Management: Appeals and Litigation

Federal Land Management: Appeals and Litigation

Date: February 26, 1997
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Habitat Modification and the Endangered Species Act: The Sweet Home Decision

Habitat Modification and the Endangered Species Act: The Sweet Home Decision

Date: July 6, 1995
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: This report discusses the Endangered Species Act, the regulation of the Fish and Wildlife Service defining "harm" for purposes of the "take" prohibitions of the Endangered Species Act.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The President's Forest/Roadless Area Initiative

The President's Forest/Roadless Area Initiative

Date: October 28, 1999
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Role of Designation of Critical Habitat under the Endangered Species Act

The Role of Designation of Critical Habitat under the Endangered Species Act

Date: July 16, 1999
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The "Timber Rider": Section 2001 of the Rescissions Act

The "Timber Rider": Section 2001 of the Rescissions Act

Date: February 22, 1996
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Survey of Grazing Programs in Western States

Survey of Grazing Programs in Western States

Date: January 30, 1996
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela & Cody, Betsy A
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Endangered Species Act Amendments: An Analysis of S. 1180 and H.R. 2351

Endangered Species Act Amendments: An Analysis of S. 1180 and H.R. 2351

Date: March 2, 1998
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela & Corn, M. Lynne
Description: Because of wide-spread interest in possible amendments to the Endangered Species Act (ESA), CRS has received numerous requests for an analysis and critique of S.1180 and H.R. 2351. This report analyzes those bills. HR. 2351 was introduced on July 31, 1997 and S. 1180 on September 16, 1997. Each bill is discussed under various topic headings. The Senate bill will be described first, since it has been reported.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Abandoned Mine Land Fund: Grants Distribution and Issues

The Abandoned Mine Land Fund: Grants Distribution and Issues

Date: March 26, 1997
Creator: Bamberger, Robert L.
Description: The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA, P.L. 95-87), enacted in 1977, established reclamation standards for all coal surface mining operations, and for the surface effects of underground mining. It also established the Abandoned Mine Land (AML) program to promote the reclamation of sites mined and abandoned prior to the enactment of SMCRA. To finance reclamation of abandoned mine sites, the legislation established fees on coal production. These collections are divided into federal and state shares; subject to annual appropriation, AML funds are distributed annually to states with approved reclamation programs. This report describes the distribution of these funds and the various issues that arise from said distribution.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Natural Resources: Assessing Nonmarket Values through Contingent Valuation

Natural Resources: Assessing Nonmarket Values through Contingent Valuation

Date: June 21, 1999
Creator: Breedlove, Joseph & Gorte, Ross W
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Pacific Salmon and Anadromous Trout: Management Under the Endangered Species Act

Pacific Salmon and Anadromous Trout: Management Under the Endangered Species Act

Date: October 27, 1999
Creator: Buck, Eugene H & Dandelski, John R
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Agreements to Promote Fishery Conservation and Management in International Waters

Agreements to Promote Fishery Conservation and Management in International Waters

Date: January 5, 1996
Creator: Buck, Eugene H.
Description: Declining fish populations threaten an important food source. Natural catastrophes, pollution, habitat destruction, and overfishing contribute to the depletion of fish stocks. Overexploitation of fishery resources often occurs when management allows expanding and increasingly efficient fishing fleets to continue harvesting dwindling supplies. Although prevalent, overexploitation is not universal and its extent varies among areas, species, and fisheries. This report discusses the issue of overfishing and its possible consequences, as well as domestic and international efforts to combat overfishing.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Weatherization Assistance Program: A Fact Sheet

The Weatherization Assistance Program: A Fact Sheet

Date: December 8, 1999
Creator: Butler, Alice D
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Grazing Fees: An Overview

Grazing Fees: An Overview

Date: May 21, 1996
Creator: Cody, Betsy A.
Description: This report briefly discusses charging fees for grazing private livestock on federal lands, which is a long-standing but contentious practice. Generally, livestock producers who use federal lands want to keep fees low, while conservation groups and others believe fees should be raised to approximate "fair market value."
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Grazing Fees and Rangeland Management

Grazing Fees and Rangeland Management

Date: December 4, 1998
Creator: Cody, Betsy A. & Baldwin, Pamela
Description: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM, Department of the Interior) and the Forest Service (Department of Agriculture) manage approximately 70% of the 650 million acres of land owned by the federal government and many of these lands are classified as rangeland. Both agencies have well-established programs permitting private livestock grazing. The Administration issued new, controversial BLM rangeland management rules effective in August 1995. Supporters contended that the Administration's new rules were a step forward in sound resource management, but some believed they did not go far enough to protect rangelands and riparian areas. Many in the ranching community opposed the new rules, believing that they would ultimately reduce private livestock activity on federal lands, and increase operating costs. This report examines the debate over federal grazing management.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species: Its Past and Future

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species: Its Past and Future

Date: August 24, 1994
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne
Description: This report discusses the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). It is divided into six sections: Introduction, Background, CITES and the Endangered Species Act, Implementation, Upcoming Events, and Appendices.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Ecosystems, Biomes, and Watersheds: Definitions and Use

Ecosystems, Biomes, and Watersheds: Definitions and Use

Date: July 14, 1993
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne
Description: This paper describes the meaning and applications of ecosystem and of the related terms watershed and biome. It discusses the pros and cons of all three as organizing principles for land management, and the major issues that are likely to arise in the debate over ecosystem management.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Listing of a Species: Legal Definition and Biological Realities

The Listing of a Species: Legal Definition and Biological Realities

Date: December 15, 1992
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Mahoganies: International Protection?

Mahoganies: International Protection?

Date: October 20, 1994
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Mexican Wolf: Federal Protection

Mexican Wolf: Federal Protection

Date: October 21, 1993
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Non-Indigenous Species: Government Response to the Brown Tree Snake and Issues for Congress

Non-Indigenous Species: Government Response to the Brown Tree Snake and Issues for Congress

Date: May 2, 1997
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Northern Goshawk: Future Endangered Species?

The Northern Goshawk: Future Endangered Species?

Date: June 29, 1994
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
African Elephant Issues: CITES and CAMPFIRE

African Elephant Issues: CITES and CAMPFIRE

Date: August 5, 1997
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne & Fletcher, Susan R.
Description: The conservation of African elephants has been controversial recently on two fronts: the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES, to which the United States is a party), and a Zimbabwean program for sustainable development called CAMPFIRE, which is partially funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). Two controversies have sprung up recently about the African elephant. One is the changing status of this species under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), of which the United States is a signatory. The other is over a program in Zimbabwe called "CAMPFIRE." The partial funding of this program by the U.S. Agency for International Development has been criticized by animal welfare groups and some conservation groups, though it has been supported by other conservation groups as well as many hunting organizations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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