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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The "8(a) Program" for Small Businesses Owned and Controlled by the Socially and Economically Disadvantaged: Legal Requirements and Issues

The "8(a) Program" for Small Businesses Owned and Controlled by the Socially and Economically Disadvantaged: Legal Requirements and Issues

Date: October 12, 2012
Creator: Manuel, Kate M. & Luckey, John R.
Description: This report provides a brief history of the 8(a) Program, summarizes key requirements, and discusses legal challenges alleging that the program's presumption that members of certain racial and ethnic groups are socially disadvantaged violates the constitutional guarantee of equal protection.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Affirmative Action and Diversity in Public Education: Legal Developments

Affirmative Action and Diversity in Public Education: Legal Developments

Date: October 18, 2012
Creator: Feder, Jody
Description: The first part of this report briefly reviews the judicial evolution of race-based affirmative action, particularly in relation to public education. The report then reviews major rulings involving challenges to the use of race-conscious admissions and hiring practices by public educational institutions, and concludes with a discussion of the implications for the future development of affirmative action law.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Affirmative Action and Diversity in Public Education: Legal Developments

Affirmative Action and Diversity in Public Education: Legal Developments

Date: July 16, 2007
Creator: Feder, Jody
Description: This report reviews the judicial evolution of race-based affirmative action, particularly in relation to public education. Recent rulings challenging the use of race-conscious admissions and hiring practices by public educational institutions are then considered for their implications on the future development of affirmative action law.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Affirmative Action and Diversity in Public Education — Legal Developments

Affirmative Action and Diversity in Public Education — Legal Developments

Date: April 26, 2006
Creator: Dale, Charles V.
Description: The first part of this report briefly reviews the judicial evolution of race-based affirmative action, particularly in relation to public education. Recent rulings challenging the use of racial admissions and hiring practices by public educational institutions are then considered for their implications on the future development of affirmative action law.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Affirmative Action and Diversity in Public Education: Legal Developments

Affirmative Action and Diversity in Public Education: Legal Developments

Date: August 9, 2013
Creator: Feder, Jody
Description: This report reviews the judicial evolution of race-based affirmative action, particularly in relation to public education. Recent rulings challenging the use of race-conscious admissions and hiring practices by public educational institutions are then considered for their implications on the future development of affirmative action law.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Affirmative Action and Diversity in Public Education — Legal Developments

Affirmative Action and Diversity in Public Education — Legal Developments

Date: July 22, 2003
Creator: Dale, Charles V.
Description: The first part of this report briefly reviews the judicial evolution of race-based affirmative action, particularly in relation to public education. Recent rulings challenging the use of racial admissions and hiring practices by public educational institutions are then considered for their implications on the future development of affirmative action law.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Affirmative Action: Justice O'Connor's Opinions

Affirmative Action: Justice O'Connor's Opinions

Date: July 19, 2005
Creator: Dale, Charles V.
Description: An examination of Justice O’Connor’s opinions reveals a gradual shift in perspective regarding the legal and constitutional standards to be applied in evaluating governmental affirmative action efforts, and the manner of their application in various legal and factual settings. This report briefly surveys decisions of retiring Justice Sandra Day O’Connor in affirmative action cases, an area where her opinions have frequently determined the outcome.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Affirmative Action: Recent Congressional and Presidential Activity

Affirmative Action: Recent Congressional and Presidential Activity

Date: May 27, 1998
Creator: Bruno, Andorra
Description: In recent years, the U.S. Congress and the President have been reevaluating, and proposing changes to, existing affirmative action policies. Multiple bills to restrict affirmative action were introduced in the 104th Congress, but only one limited measure was enacted. Some anti-preference legislation is currently before the 105th Congress. The Clinton Administration has generally opposed efforts to terminate affirmative action programs and, instead, has proposed various reforms.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Affirmative Action Revisited: A Legal History and Prospectus

Affirmative Action Revisited: A Legal History and Prospectus

Date: January 30, 2004
Creator: Dale, Charles V.
Description: Affirmative action remains a focal point of public debate as the result of legal and political developments at the federal, state, and local levels. This report discusses legislation related to affirmative action, as well as legal rulings on the topic and the federal government's role in first establishing and, later, attempting to curb affirmative action policies.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Affirmative Action Revisited: A Legal History and Prospectus

Affirmative Action Revisited: A Legal History and Prospectus

Date: December 15, 2004
Creator: Dale, Charles V.
Description: Affirmative action remains a focal point of public debate as the result of legal and political developments at the federal, state, and local levels. This report discusses legislation related to affirmative action, as well as legal rulings on the topic and the federal government's role in first establishing and, later, attempting to curb affirmative action policies.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2009

African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2009

Date: February 2, 2010
Creator: Manning, Jennifer E. & Shogan, Colleen J.
Description: This report discusses the history and current status of African Americans in Congress. There are 42 African American Members serving in the 111th Congress, 41 in the House of Representatives and one in the Senate. There have been 125 African American Members of Congress: 119 have been elected to the House; five have been elected to the Senate; and one has been appointed to the Senate. There have been 98 Democrats: 95 in the House, three in the Senate; and 27 Republicans: 24 in the House, three in the Senate.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012

African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012

Date: March 6, 2012
Creator: Manning, Jennifer E. & Shogan, Colleen J.
Description: A history and current status report of African Americans in Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bilingual Education: An Overview

Bilingual Education: An Overview

Date: June 7, 2001
Creator: Osorio-O'Dea, Patricia
Description: The U.S. Department of Education(ED) administers the Bilingual Education Act (BEA), the federal education program specifically intended for limited English proficient (LEP) children. The Congress considered several proposals to reauthorize the BEA in the 106th Congress. The 107th Congress has again been considering legislation to reauthorize the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), including the BEA. H.R. 1, the “No Child Left Behind Act of 2001” was passed by the House on May 23, 2001. S. 1, the “Better Education for Students and Teachers Act” was reported in the Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions, and is currently under consideration, as amended by SA358, in the Senate.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Biotechnology, Indigenous Peoples, and Intellectual Property Rights

Biotechnology, Indigenous Peoples, and Intellectual Property Rights

Date: April 16, 1993
Creator: Axt, Josephie R; Lee, Margaret Mikyung & Ackerman, David M
Description: This report examines intellectual property right in pharmaceuticals in a particular context, namely, medicinal products and processes derived from the biodiversity resources of areas inhabited by indigenous peoples. This report discusses the international law regarding intellectual property rights in traditional knowledge and the American laws regarding traditional knowledge.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Black and Hispanic Federal Judges: 1900 to Present

Black and Hispanic Federal Judges: 1900 to Present

Date: August 9, 1983
Creator: Bailey, Dorothy J
Description: This report shows that in recent years, attention has increasingly focused upon the minority composition of the Federal judiciary, in apparent response to concerns that judges appointed to the Federal bench should more compositely reflect the U.S. population they serve. Two of the larger U.S. subpopulations served by the Federal judiciary are blacks and Hispanics. Accordingly, this mini brief lists chronologically and cumulatively the appointments of blacks and Hispanics to the Federal bench, which includes the U.S.Supreme Court, Circuit Courts of Appeals, and District courts.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Black Members of the United States Congress: 1789-2001

Black Members of the United States Congress: 1789-2001

Date: July 12, 2001
Creator: Amer, Mildred L
Description: Thirty-nine black Members serve in the 107th Congress, all in the House of Representatives. In 210 years of congressional history, there have been 107 black Members of Congress: 103 elected to the House and four to the Senate. This report includes alphabetical listing of black members, selected biographical information, and committee assignments during their tenure in office.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Black Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2004

Black Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2004

Date: March 4, 2004
Creator: Amer, Mildred L
Description: Thirty-nine black Members serve in the 107th Congress, all in the House of Representatives. In 210 years of congressional history, there have been 107 black Members of Congress: 103 elected to the House and four to the Senate. This report includes alphabetical listing of black members, selected biographical information, and committee assignments during their tenure in office.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Black Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2005

Black Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2005

Date: August 4, 2005
Creator: Amer, Mildred L
Description: Forty three black or African-American Members serve in the 109th Congress; 42 in the House of Representatives, one in the Senate. There have been 117 black Members of Congress: 112 elected to the House and five to the Senate. The majority of the black Members (90) have been Democrats; the rest (27) have been Republicans. This report includes alphabetical listing of black members, selected biographical information, and committee assignments during their tenure in office.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Carcieri v. Salazar: The Secretary of the Interior May Not Acquire Trust Land for the Narragansett Indian Tribe Under 25 U.S.C. § 465 Because That Statute Applies to Tribes “Under Federal Jurisdiction” in 1934

Carcieri v. Salazar: The Secretary of the Interior May Not Acquire Trust Land for the Narragansett Indian Tribe Under 25 U.S.C. § 465 Because That Statute Applies to Tribes “Under Federal Jurisdiction” in 1934

Date: April 15, 2011
Creator: Murphy, M. Maureen
Description: This report discusses the right of the Secretary of the Interior (SOI) to take Narragansett Indian Tribe land into trust. It looks at issues before the Supreme Court in the case of Carcieri v. Salazar (2009), and subsequent bills related to this case that have been introduced by Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Disadvantaged Businesses: A Review of Federal Assistance

Disadvantaged Businesses: A Review of Federal Assistance

Date: January 14, 2002
Creator: Fauntroy, Michael K
Description: It is the policy of the federal government to encourage the development of small disadvantaged businesses (SDBs) owned by minorities and women. SDBs are statutorily defined as small businesses that are owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals who have been subjected to racial or ethnic prejudice or cultural bias and who have limited capital and credit opportunities. This report presents an overview of the major federal programs now in existence and indicates where interested persons can obtain further information about specific programs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Diversity, Inclusion, and Equal Opportunity in the Armed Services: Background and Issues for Congress

Diversity, Inclusion, and Equal Opportunity in the Armed Services: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: December 23, 2015
Creator: Kamarck, Kristy N.
Description: This report starts by giving an overview of recent research on diversity and organizational management. The next sections outline DOD's military personnel policies, processes and organizational structure for managing diversity, inclusion, and equal opportunity. Finally, the report examines how the concept of diversity and inclusion has evolved over the history of the Armed Forces and addresses some of the current legislative and policy issues related to diversity in the Armed Forces.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Dominican Republic: Update on Citizenship and Humanitarian Issues

Dominican Republic: Update on Citizenship and Humanitarian Issues

Date: April 27, 2016
Creator: Ribando Seelke, Clare & Margesson, Rhoda
Description: This report briefly examines social issues in the Dominican Republic regarding the treatment of Haitians and Dominicans of Haitian descent.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Education of Limited English Proficient and Recent Immigrant Students: Provisions in the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001

Education of Limited English Proficient and Recent Immigrant Students: Provisions in the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001

Date: April 26, 2004
Creator: Kuenzi, Jeffrey J
Description: The Language Acquisition State Grant Program under Title III of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA) as amended by the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLBA) contains provisions intended to address the specific educational needs of limited English proficient (LEP) students and students who have recently immigrated to the United States.1 Title III represents a major overhaul of federal programs for LEP students formerly provided under ESEA, Title VII, Parts A and C.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Affirmative Action Law: A Brief History

Federal Affirmative Action Law: A Brief History

Date: September 13, 2005
Creator: Dale, Charles V
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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