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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Immigration Consequences of Criminal Activity

Immigration Consequences of Criminal Activity

Date: December 2, 2004
Creator: Garcia, Michael John & Eig, Larry M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Immigration Consequences of Criminal Activity

Immigration Consequences of Criminal Activity

Date: July 6, 2005
Creator: Garcia, Michael John & Eig, Larry M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Black Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2005

Black Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2005

Date: August 4, 2005
Creator: Amer, Mildred L
Description: Forty three black or African-American Members serve in the 109th Congress; 42 in the House of Representatives, one in the Senate. There have been 117 black Members of Congress: 112 elected to the House and five to the Senate. The majority of the black Members (90) have been Democrats; the rest (27) have been Republicans. This report includes alphabetical listing of black members, selected biographical information, and committee assignments during their tenure in office.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Black Members of the United States Congress: 1789-2001

Black Members of the United States Congress: 1789-2001

Date: July 12, 2001
Creator: Amer, Mildred L
Description: Thirty-nine black Members serve in the 107th Congress, all in the House of Representatives. In 210 years of congressional history, there have been 107 black Members of Congress: 103 elected to the House and four to the Senate. This report includes alphabetical listing of black members, selected biographical information, and committee assignments during their tenure in office.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Black Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2004

Black Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2004

Date: March 4, 2004
Creator: Amer, Mildred L
Description: Thirty-nine black Members serve in the 107th Congress, all in the House of Representatives. In 210 years of congressional history, there have been 107 black Members of Congress: 103 elected to the House and four to the Senate. This report includes alphabetical listing of black members, selected biographical information, and committee assignments during their tenure in office.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Affirmative Action: Recent Congressional and Presidential Activity

Affirmative Action: Recent Congressional and Presidential Activity

Date: May 27, 1998
Creator: Bruno, Andorra
Description: In recent years, the U.S. Congress and the President have been reevaluating, and proposing changes to, existing affirmative action policies. Multiple bills to restrict affirmative action were introduced in the 104th Congress, but only one limited measure was enacted. Some anti-preference legislation is currently before the 105th Congress. The Clinton Administration has generally opposed efforts to terminate affirmative action programs and, instead, has proposed various reforms.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Immigration Consequences of Criminal Activity

Immigration Consequences of Criminal Activity

Date: October 23, 2006
Creator: Garcia, Michael John & Eig, Larry M
Description: This report discusses the potential immigration consequences of criminal activity. “Criminal activity” generally refers to conduct for which an alien has been found or plead guilty before a court of law, though in limited circumstances consequences may attach to the commission of a crime or admission of acts constituting the essential elements of a crime. Consequences may flow from violations of either federal, state or, in many circumstances, foreign criminal law. Some federal crimes are set out in the INA itself — alien smuggling, for example. However, not all violations of immigration law are crimes. Notably, being in the U.S. without legal permission — i.e., being an “illegal alien” — is not a crime in and of itself. Thus, for example, an alien who overstays a student visa may be an “illegal alien,” in that the alien may be subject to removal from the U.S., but such an alien is not a “criminal alien.”
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Immigration Consequences of Criminal Activity

Immigration Consequences of Criminal Activity

Date: October 23, 2006
Creator: Garcia, Michael John & Eig, Larry M.
Description: Congress has the authority to determine classes of aliens who may be admitted into the United States and the grounds for which they may be removed. Pursuant to the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), as amended, certain conduct may either disqualify an alien from entering the United States ("inadmissibility") or provide grounds for his or her removal/deportation. Prominently included among this conduct is criminal activity. This report explores this issue in-depth, especially the difference between the terms "illegal alien" and "criminal alien" and relevant legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Indian Gaming Regulatory Act (IGRA): Gaming on Newly Acquired Lands

Indian Gaming Regulatory Act (IGRA): Gaming on Newly Acquired Lands

Date: May 28, 2008
Creator: Murphy, M. Maureen
Description: This report discuses the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act (IGRA), which generally prohibits gaming on lands acquired for Indians in trust by the Secretary of the Interior.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Affirmative Action and Diversity in Public Education: Legal Developments

Affirmative Action and Diversity in Public Education: Legal Developments

Date: October 18, 2012
Creator: Feder, Jody
Description: The first part of this report briefly reviews the judicial evolution of race-based affirmative action, particularly in relation to public education. The report then reviews major rulings involving challenges to the use of race-conscious admissions and hiring practices by public educational institutions, and concludes with a discussion of the implications for the future development of affirmative action law.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Affirmative Action and Diversity in Public Education: Legal Developments

Affirmative Action and Diversity in Public Education: Legal Developments

Date: July 16, 2007
Creator: Feder, Jody
Description: This report reviews the judicial evolution of race-based affirmative action, particularly in relation to public education. Recent rulings challenging the use of race-conscious admissions and hiring practices by public educational institutions are then considered for their implications on the future development of affirmative action law.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Affirmative Action and Diversity in Public Education — Legal Developments

Affirmative Action and Diversity in Public Education — Legal Developments

Date: April 26, 2006
Creator: Dale, Charles V.
Description: The first part of this report briefly reviews the judicial evolution of race-based affirmative action, particularly in relation to public education. Recent rulings challenging the use of racial admissions and hiring practices by public educational institutions are then considered for their implications on the future development of affirmative action law.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Affirmative Action and Diversity in Public Education: Legal Developments

Affirmative Action and Diversity in Public Education: Legal Developments

Date: August 9, 2013
Creator: Feder, Jody
Description: This report reviews the judicial evolution of race-based affirmative action, particularly in relation to public education. Recent rulings challenging the use of race-conscious admissions and hiring practices by public educational institutions are then considered for their implications on the future development of affirmative action law.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Affirmative Action and Diversity in Public Education — Legal Developments

Affirmative Action and Diversity in Public Education — Legal Developments

Date: July 22, 2003
Creator: Dale, Charles V.
Description: The first part of this report briefly reviews the judicial evolution of race-based affirmative action, particularly in relation to public education. Recent rulings challenging the use of racial admissions and hiring practices by public educational institutions are then considered for their implications on the future development of affirmative action law.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Affirmative Action Law: A Brief History

Federal Affirmative Action Law: A Brief History

Date: September 13, 2005
Creator: Dale, Charles V
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Black and Hispanic Federal Judges: 1900 to Present

Black and Hispanic Federal Judges: 1900 to Present

Date: August 9, 1983
Creator: Bailey, Dorothy J
Description: This report shows that in recent years, attention has increasingly focused upon the minority composition of the Federal judiciary, in apparent response to concerns that judges appointed to the Federal bench should more compositely reflect the U.S. population they serve. Two of the larger U.S. subpopulations served by the Federal judiciary are blacks and Hispanics. Accordingly, this mini brief lists chronologically and cumulatively the appointments of blacks and Hispanics to the Federal bench, which includes the U.S.Supreme Court, Circuit Courts of Appeals, and District courts.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The "8(a) Program" for Small Businesses Owned and Controlled by the Socially and Economically Disadvantaged: Legal Requirements and Issues

The "8(a) Program" for Small Businesses Owned and Controlled by the Socially and Economically Disadvantaged: Legal Requirements and Issues

Date: October 12, 2012
Creator: Manuel, Kate M. & Luckey, John R.
Description: This report provides a brief history of the 8(a) Program, summarizes key requirements, and discusses legal challenges alleging that the program's presumption that members of certain racial and ethnic groups are socially disadvantaged violates the constitutional guarantee of equal protection.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Indian Law: Sources of General Information

Federal Indian Law: Sources of General Information

Date: October 27, 1999
Creator: Ely, Dana
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Affirmative Action Law: A Brief History

Federal Affirmative Action Law: A Brief History

Date: October 19, 2015
Creator: Feder, Jody
Description: This report provides a brief history of federal affirmative action law, including legal and political developments at the federal, state, and local levels. It describes the origins, affirmative action in public education, minority contracting, and recent developments as of 2015.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran: Ethnic and Religious Minorities

Iran: Ethnic and Religious Minorities

Date: November 25, 2008
Creator: Hassan, Hussein D.
Description: Iran is home to approximately 70.5 million people who are ethnically, religiously, and linguistically diverse. This report discusses these minorities, their treatment under the Islamic regime, and the reactions of international rights groups.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bilingual Education: An Overview

Bilingual Education: An Overview

Date: June 7, 2001
Creator: Osorio-O'Dea, Patricia
Description: The U.S. Department of Education(ED) administers the Bilingual Education Act (BEA), the federal education program specifically intended for limited English proficient (LEP) children. The Congress considered several proposals to reauthorize the BEA in the 106th Congress. The 107th Congress has again been considering legislation to reauthorize the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), including the BEA. H.R. 1, the “No Child Left Behind Act of 2001” was passed by the House on May 23, 2001. S. 1, the “Better Education for Students and Teachers Act” was reported in the Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions, and is currently under consideration, as amended by SA358, in the Senate.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act Amendments Act of 1994, S. 2230 (103rd Cong., 2nd Sess.): A Brief Analysis

The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act Amendments Act of 1994, S. 2230 (103rd Cong., 2nd Sess.): A Brief Analysis

Date: August 25, 1994
Creator: Murphy, M. Maureen
Description: This report provides an analysis of S. 2230, the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act Amendments of 1994 introduced June 23, 1994, to amend the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act. It includes sections on stated purposes, enhanced powers of the National Indian Gaming Commission, proposed tribal-state compacting process, modifications of current law with respect to class II gaming, modification of current law with respect to class III gaming, and miscellaneous amendments.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act Contracts and

Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act Contracts and

Date: March 31, 2005
Creator: Brooks, Nathan
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Disadvantaged Businesses: A Review of Federal Assistance

Disadvantaged Businesses: A Review of Federal Assistance

Date: January 14, 2002
Creator: Fauntroy, Michael K
Description: It is the policy of the federal government to encourage the development of small disadvantaged businesses (SDBs) owned by minorities and women. SDBs are statutorily defined as small businesses that are owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals who have been subjected to racial or ethnic prejudice or cultural bias and who have limited capital and credit opportunities. This report presents an overview of the major federal programs now in existence and indicates where interested persons can obtain further information about specific programs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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