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 Resource Type: Report
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Immigration Consequences of Criminal Activity
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Immigration Consequences of Criminal Activity
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Black Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2005
Forty three black or African-American Members serve in the 109th Congress; 42 in the House of Representatives, one in the Senate. There have been 117 black Members of Congress: 112 elected to the House and five to the Senate. The majority of the black Members (90) have been Democrats; the rest (27) have been Republicans. This report includes alphabetical listing of black members, selected biographical information, and committee assignments during their tenure in office. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7142/
Black Members of the United States Congress: 1789-2001
Thirty-nine black Members serve in the 107th Congress, all in the House of Representatives. In 210 years of congressional history, there have been 107 black Members of Congress: 103 elected to the House and four to the Senate. This report includes alphabetical listing of black members, selected biographical information, and committee assignments during their tenure in office. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1499/
Black Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2004
Thirty-nine black Members serve in the 107th Congress, all in the House of Representatives. In 210 years of congressional history, there have been 107 black Members of Congress: 103 elected to the House and four to the Senate. This report includes alphabetical listing of black members, selected biographical information, and committee assignments during their tenure in office. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5763/
Affirmative Action: Recent Congressional and Presidential Activity
In recent years, the U.S. Congress and the President have been reevaluating, and proposing changes to, existing affirmative action policies. Multiple bills to restrict affirmative action were introduced in the 104th Congress, but only one limited measure was enacted. Some anti-preference legislation is currently before the 105th Congress. The Clinton Administration has generally opposed efforts to terminate affirmative action programs and, instead, has proposed various reforms. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs737/
Immigration Consequences of Criminal Activity
This report discusses the potential immigration consequences of criminal activity. “Criminal activity” generally refers to conduct for which an alien has been found or plead guilty before a court of law, though in limited circumstances consequences may attach to the commission of a crime or admission of acts constituting the essential elements of a crime. Consequences may flow from violations of either federal, state or, in many circumstances, foreign criminal law. Some federal crimes are set out in the INA itself — alien smuggling, for example. However, not all violations of immigration law are crimes. Notably, being in the U.S. without legal permission — i.e., being an “illegal alien” — is not a crime in and of itself. Thus, for example, an alien who overstays a student visa may be an “illegal alien,” in that the alien may be subject to removal from the U.S., but such an alien is not a “criminal alien.” digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9934/
Immigration Consequences of Criminal Activity
Congress has the authority to determine classes of aliens who may be admitted into the United States and the grounds for which they may be removed. Pursuant to the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), as amended, certain conduct may either disqualify an alien from entering the United States ("inadmissibility") or provide grounds for his or her removal/deportation. Prominently included among this conduct is criminal activity. This report explores this issue in-depth, especially the difference between the terms "illegal alien" and "criminal alien" and relevant legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10416/
Indian Gaming Regulatory Act (IGRA): Gaming on Newly Acquired Lands
This report discuses the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act (IGRA), which generally prohibits gaming on lands acquired for Indians in trust by the Secretary of the Interior. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822575/
Affirmative Action and Diversity in Public Education: Legal Developments
The first part of this report briefly reviews the judicial evolution of race-based affirmative action, particularly in relation to public education. The report then reviews major rulings involving challenges to the use of race-conscious admissions and hiring practices by public educational institutions, and concludes with a discussion of the implications for the future development of affirmative action law. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc807310/
Affirmative Action and Diversity in Public Education: Legal Developments
This report reviews the judicial evolution of race-based affirmative action, particularly in relation to public education. Recent rulings challenging the use of race-conscious admissions and hiring practices by public educational institutions are then considered for their implications on the future development of affirmative action law. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822641/
Affirmative Action and Diversity in Public Education — Legal Developments
The first part of this report briefly reviews the judicial evolution of race-based affirmative action, particularly in relation to public education. Recent rulings challenging the use of racial admissions and hiring practices by public educational institutions are then considered for their implications on the future development of affirmative action law. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc811539/
Affirmative Action and Diversity in Public Education: Legal Developments
This report reviews the judicial evolution of race-based affirmative action, particularly in relation to public education. Recent rulings challenging the use of race-conscious admissions and hiring practices by public educational institutions are then considered for their implications on the future development of affirmative action law. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc815557/
Affirmative Action and Diversity in Public Education — Legal Developments
The first part of this report briefly reviews the judicial evolution of race-based affirmative action, particularly in relation to public education. Recent rulings challenging the use of racial admissions and hiring practices by public educational institutions are then considered for their implications on the future development of affirmative action law. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc805986/
Federal Affirmative Action Law: A Brief History
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Black and Hispanic Federal Judges: 1900 to Present
This report shows that in recent years, attention has increasingly focused upon the minority composition of the Federal judiciary, in apparent response to concerns that judges appointed to the Federal bench should more compositely reflect the U.S. population they serve. Two of the larger U.S. subpopulations served by the Federal judiciary are blacks and Hispanics. Accordingly, this mini brief lists chronologically and cumulatively the appointments of blacks and Hispanics to the Federal bench, which includes the U.S.Supreme Court, Circuit Courts of Appeals, and District courts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8861/
The "8(a) Program" for Small Businesses Owned and Controlled by the Socially and Economically Disadvantaged: Legal Requirements and Issues
This report provides a brief history of the 8(a) Program, summarizes key requirements, and discusses legal challenges alleging that the program's presumption that members of certain racial and ethnic groups are socially disadvantaged violates the constitutional guarantee of equal protection. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227649/
Federal Indian Law: Sources of General Information
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Federal Affirmative Action Law: A Brief History
This report provides a brief history of federal affirmative action law, including legal and political developments at the federal, state, and local levels. It describes the origins, affirmative action in public education, minority contracting, and recent developments as of 2015. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795506/
Iran: Ethnic and Religious Minorities
Iran is home to approximately 70.5 million people who are ethnically, religiously, and linguistically diverse. This report discusses these minorities, their treatment under the Islamic regime, and the reactions of international rights groups. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795725/
Bilingual Education: An Overview
The U.S. Department of Education(ED) administers the Bilingual Education Act (BEA), the federal education program specifically intended for limited English proficient (LEP) children. The Congress considered several proposals to reauthorize the BEA in the 106th Congress. The 107th Congress has again been considering legislation to reauthorize the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), including the BEA. H.R. 1, the “No Child Left Behind Act of 2001” was passed by the House on May 23, 2001. S. 1, the “Better Education for Students and Teachers Act” was reported in the Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions, and is currently under consideration, as amended by SA358, in the Senate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1882/
The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act Amendments Act of 1994, S. 2230 (103rd Cong., 2nd Sess.): A Brief Analysis
This report provides an analysis of S. 2230, the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act Amendments of 1994 introduced June 23, 1994, to amend the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act. It includes sections on stated purposes, enhanced powers of the National Indian Gaming Commission, proposed tribal-state compacting process, modifications of current law with respect to class II gaming, modification of current law with respect to class III gaming, and miscellaneous amendments. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26052/
Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act Contracts and
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Disadvantaged Businesses: A Review of Federal Assistance
It is the policy of the federal government to encourage the development of small disadvantaged businesses (SDBs) owned by minorities and women. SDBs are statutorily defined as small businesses that are owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals who have been subjected to racial or ethnic prejudice or cultural bias and who have limited capital and credit opportunities. This report presents an overview of the major federal programs now in existence and indicates where interested persons can obtain further information about specific programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2186/
Affirmative Action Revisited: A Legal History and Prospectus
Affirmative action remains a focal point of public debate as the result of legal and political developments at the federal, state, and local levels. This report discusses legislation related to affirmative action, as well as legal rulings on the topic and the federal government's role in first establishing and, later, attempting to curb affirmative action policies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6845/
Affirmative Action Revisited: A Legal History and Prospectus
Affirmative action remains a focal point of public debate as the result of legal and political developments at the federal, state, and local levels. This report discusses legislation related to affirmative action, as well as legal rulings on the topic and the federal government's role in first establishing and, later, attempting to curb affirmative action policies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6844/
Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Discrimination in Employment: A Legal Analysis of the Employment Non-Discrimination Act (ENDA)
This report discusses issues surrounding the proposed Employment Non-Discrimination Act, which would prohibit discrimination based on an individual's actual or perceived sexual orientation or gender identity by public and private employers in hiring, discharge, compensation, and other terms and conditions of employment. The stated purpose of the legislation is "to address the history and widespread pattern of discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity by private sector employers and local, State, and Federal Government employers," as well as to provide effective remedies for such discrimination. Patterned on Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the act would be enforced by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87149/
Minority Contracting and Affirmative Action for Disadvantaged Small Businesses: Legal Issues
This report discusses the minority participation “goals” that have been an integral part of federal policies to promote racial and gender equality in contracting on federally financed construction projects and in connection with other large federal contracts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10846/
Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Discrimination in Employment: A Legal Analysis of the Employment Non-Discrimination Act (ENDA)
This report discusses issues surrounding the proposed Employment Non-Discrimination Act, which would prohibit discrimination based on an individual's actual or perceived sexual orientation or gender identity by public and private employers in hiring, discharge, compensation, and other terms and conditions of employment. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462740/
The U.N. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW): Issues in the U.S. Ratification Debate
This report discusses issues surrounding the proposed Employment Non-Discrimination Act, which would prohibit discrimination based on an individual's actual or perceived sexual orientation or gender identity by public and private employers in hiring, discharge, compensation, and other terms and conditions of employment. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462292/
African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2009
This report discusses the history and current status of African Americans in Congress. There are 42 African American Members serving in the 111th Congress, 41 in the House of Representatives and one in the Senate. There have been 125 African American Members of Congress: 119 have been elected to the House; five have been elected to the Senate; and one has been appointed to the Senate. There have been 98 Democrats: 95 in the House, three in the Senate; and 27 Republicans: 24 in the House, three in the Senate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505449/
Survey of Federal Laws and Regulations Mandating Affirmative Action Goals, Set-asides, or Other Preference Based on Race, Gender, or Ethnicity
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Carcieri v. Salazar: The Secretary of the Interior May Not Acquire Trust Land for the Narragansett Indian Tribe Under 25 U.S.C. § 465 Because That Statute Applies to Tribes “Under Federal Jurisdiction” in 1934
This report discusses the right of the Secretary of the Interior (SOI) to take Narragansett Indian Tribe land into trust. It looks at issues before the Supreme Court in the case of Carcieri v. Salazar (2009), and subsequent bills related to this case that have been introduced by Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98110/
Biotechnology, Indigenous Peoples, and Intellectual Property Rights
This report examines intellectual property right in pharmaceuticals in a particular context, namely, medicinal products and processes derived from the biodiversity resources of areas inhabited by indigenous peoples. This report discusses the international law regarding intellectual property rights in traditional knowledge and the American laws regarding traditional knowledge. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8176/
African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2012
A history and current status report of African Americans in Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc85436/
Affirmative Action: Justice O'Connor's Opinions
An examination of Justice O’Connor’s opinions reveals a gradual shift in perspective regarding the legal and constitutional standards to be applied in evaluating governmental affirmative action efforts, and the manner of their application in various legal and factual settings. This report briefly surveys decisions of retiring Justice Sandra Day O’Connor in affirmative action cases, an area where her opinions have frequently determined the outcome. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7762/
Survey of Federal Laws Containing Goals, Set-Asides, Priorities, or Other Preferences Based on Race, Gender, or Ethnicity
This report provides a broad, but by no means exhaustive, survey of federal statutes that specifically refer to race, gender, or ethnicity as factors to be considered in the administration of any federal program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31350/
Instability in Chad
This report discusses the currently volatile political and security situation in Chad. Some issues Chad is currently facing include ethnic clashes, banditry, and fighting between government forces and rebel groups; a large number of displaced persons who have fled Chad to the neighboring nation of Cameroon; an increasing number of refugee influx from the nearby troubled regions of the Central African Republic (CAR) and Sudan's Darfur; and inadequate security forces. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10724/
Legal Analysis of the 10% Disadvantaged Small Business Set-Aside Provisions of H.R. 2400, the "Building Efficient Surface Transportation and Equity Act of 1997"
This report discusses the vote on H.R. 2400, the "Building Efficient Surface Transportation and Equity Act of 1997"(BESTEA), an omnibus bill to fund surface transportation into the next century. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs564/
Education of Limited English Proficient and Recent Immigrant Students: Provisions in the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001
The Language Acquisition State Grant Program under Title III of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA) as amended by the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLBA) contains provisions intended to address the specific educational needs of limited English proficient (LEP) students and students who have recently immigrated to the United States.1 Title III represents a major overhaul of federal programs for LEP students formerly provided under ESEA, Title VII, Parts A and C. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7368/
Katrina Relief: U.S. Labor Department Exemption of Contractors from Written Affirmative Action Requirements
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Wagnon v. Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation:
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Diversity, Inclusion, and Equal Opportunity in the Armed Services: Background and Issues for Congress
This report starts by giving an overview of recent research on diversity and organizational management. The next sections outline DOD's military personnel policies, processes and organizational structure for managing diversity, inclusion, and equal opportunity. Finally, the report examines how the concept of diversity and inclusion has evolved over the history of the Armed Forces and addresses some of the current legislative and policy issues related to diversity in the Armed Forces. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795881/
Federal Elementary and Secondary Education Programs: Reauthorization Issues
This report discusses the reauthorization of most Federal elementary and secondary education programs, which the 100th Congress is currently considering, as well as the creation of several new programs. Issues have included: (1) Federal versus ~tate/local priorities in the use of funds; (2) use of formula grants or competitive grants to allocate funds; (3) services for eligible nonpublic school children; (4) relationship between Federal programs and State-level school reform activities; and (5) information about programs and participants for the Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9075/