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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The Role of the Department of Defense During A Flu Pandemic
This report focuses on the role of the Department of Defense (DOD) in supporting the nation's domestic response effort to a flu pandemic, although it will also touch on DOD's international role. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700865/
The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR): Funding Issues After a Decade of Implementation, FY2004-FY2013
This report outlines U.S. spending on global HIV/AIDS programs since the inception of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), analyzes global HIV/AIDS funding by other donors, and highlights key issues pertaining to funding that will face the 113th Congress as it considers the future of PEPFAR digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122268/
The Proposed Tobacco Settlement: Effects on Prices, Smoking Behavior, and Income Distribution
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs562/
The Proposed Tobacco Settlement: Who Pays for the Health Costs of Smoking?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs561/
Overview of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5727/
Suicide Prevention Efforts of the Veterans Health Administration
Responsibility for prevention of veteran suicide lies primarily with the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), within the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). The VHA Strategic Plan for Suicide Prevention is based on a public health framework, which has three major components: (1) surveillance, (2) risk and protective factors, and (3) prevention interventions. This report identifies challenges the VHA faces in each component of suicide prevention and discusses potential issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87205/
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV): World Health Organization Responses
This report discusses responses to the recent outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which has spread to more than a dozen countries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700837/
Patient Safety: Legislation to Promote Voluntary Reporting of Medical Errors
This report provides an overview and some analysis of the patient safety legislation that is being considered by the 108th Congress. It begins with background information on the nature and causes of medical errors, followed by a brief comparison of the differences between mandatory and voluntary reporting systems. The report then discusses some of the legal and policy issues facing state mandatory reporting systems and major national voluntary reporting systems, and identifies design features of effective reporting programs. It concludes with a discussion and side-by-side comparison of H.R. 663 and S. 720. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821116/
Pandemic Flu and Medical Biodefense Countermeasure Liability Limitation
This report analyzes Division C of the Department of Defense Emergency Supplemental Appropriations, P.L. 109-148, which was signed into law on December 30, 2005, and which limits liability with respect to pandemic flu and other public health countermeasures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847748/
Veterans' Health Care Issues in the 109th Congress
This report provides an overview of major issues facing veterans' health care during the 109th Congress. The report's primary focus is on veterans and not military retirees. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847509/
Form 1099 Information Reporting Requirements as Modified by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act
This report discusses the modifications to IRC § 6041 made by § 9006 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) and briefly discusses the penalties that can be imposed on persons that do not comply with these information reporting requirements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821455/
Overview of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003
This report examines the the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003, which creates a prescription drug benefit for Medicare beneficiaries and establishes a new Medicare Advantage program to replace the current Medicare+Choice program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc855798/
Military Health Care: The Issue of “Promised” Benefits
In the debate over the Department of Defense policy on military health care benefits, many military personnel and retirees say that they were promised “free health care for life” when they entered the armed forces. What benefits are available and who is eligible to receive these benefits are matters determined by Congress. This report discusses the issue of “promises” of lifetime health care benefits made to military retirees. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821510/
Immigration Policies and Issues on Health-Related Grounds for Exclusion
This report discusses the criteria that foreign nationals must meet before admission to the United States including the reasons why a foreign national might be denied admission, most particularly on health-related grounds. It describes this issue in relation to the recent outbreak of the 2009 H1N1 ("swine flu") virus, and how the outbreak has affected various government agencies, such as the Customs and Border Protection (CBP) agency within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). This report also discusses efforts to confront and address related issues on a legislative front. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc287943/
Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs
This report looks at ways that prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs), which maintain statewide electronic databases of prescriptions dispensed for controlled substances, can help to deter prescription drug misuse. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc284447/
The Number of Veterans That Use VA Health Care Services: A Fact Sheet
This report provides data on the number of veterans and VA health care users, and discusses the allegations of long delays in treatments. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306446/
Veterans Affairs: Presumptive Service Connection and Disability Compensation
This report discusses presumptive service connection, its legislative history, and current challenges in making evidence-based determinations of presumptions. It also discusses the Agent Orange Act (P.L. 102-4) and suggests implications of the process established by the act for future presumptive service-connected determinations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491075/
Veterans Affairs: Presumptive Service Connection and Disability Compensation
The purpose of this report is to examine the very complex and sometimes controversial policy issue of establishing presumptive service connection. The material in it is based in large part on VA's "Analysis of Presumptions of Service Connection," and IOM's "Improving the Presumptive Disability Decision-Making Process for Veterans" reports. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491018/
Veterans Medical Care: FY2011 Appropriations
The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) provides benefits to veterans through three major operating units, one of which is the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), on which this report focuses. This report will track the FY2011 appropriations process for funding VHA, and will be updated as legislative activities warrant. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491546/
Title X (Public Health Service Act) Family Planning Program
This report discusses the Family Planning Program, Title X of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. §§300 to 300a-6), which is the only domestic federal program devoted solely to family planning and related preventive health services. The report discusses various services related to Title X and also considers current legislation related to the program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462238/
The Public Health and Medical Response to Disasters: Federal Authority and Funding
This report examines, first, the authorities and coordinating mechanisms of the President and the Secretary of HHS in providing routine assistance, and assistance pursuant to emergency or major disaster declarations and/or public health emergency determinations; second, mechanisms to assure a coordinated federal response to public health and medical emergencies, and overlaps or gaps in agency responsibilities; and finally, existing mechanisms, potential gaps, and proposals for financing the costs of a response to public health and medical emergencies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462504/
International Family Planning Programs: Issues for Congress
This report looks at how the debate over family planning within the U.S. is spilling over to U.S.-funded family planning programs abroad. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc461939/
Prevalence of Mental Illness in the United States: Data Sources and Estimates
This report briefly describes the methodology and selected findings of three large federally funded surveys that provide national prevalence estimates of diagnosable mental illness: the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R), the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A), and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). This report presents prevalence estimates of any mental illness and serious mental illness based on each survey and ends with a brief discussion of how these prevalence estimates might inform policy discussions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462932/
The Public Health and Medical Response to Disasters: Federal Authority and Funding
This report examines (1) the authorities and coordinating mechanisms of the President and the Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS) in providing routine assistance, and assistance pursuant to emergency or major disaster declarations and/or public health emergency determinations; (2) mechanisms to assure a coordinated federal response to public health and medical emergencies, and overlaps or gaps in agency responsibilities; and (3) existing mechanisms, potential gaps, and proposals for financing the costs of a response to public health and medical emergencies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc461895/
Health Care for Veterans: Suicide Prevention
This report focuses on suicide prevention activities of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) within the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). The VHA's approach to suicide prevention is based on a public health framework, which has three major components: (1) surveillance, (2) risk and protective factors, and (3) interventions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501672/
Regulation of Clinical Tests: In Vitro Diagnostic (IVD) Devices, Laboratory Developed Tests (LDTs), and Genetic Tests
In vitro diagnostic (IVD) devices are used in the analysis of human samples, such as blood or tissue, to provide information in making health care decisions. Examples of IVDs include pregnancy test kits or blood glucose tests for home use; laboratory tests for infectious disease, such as HIV or hepatitis, and routine blood tests, such as cholesterol and anemia; and tests for various genetic diseases or conditions. More recently, a specific type of diagnostic test--called a companion diagnostic--has been developed that may be used to select the best therapy, at the right dose, at the correct time for a particular patient; this is often referred to as personalized or precision medicine. This report provides an overview of federal regulation of IVDs by FDA, through the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act (FFDCA) and the Public Health Service Act (PHSA), and by CMS, through the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) of 1988. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501872/
The 2009 Influenza Pandemic: Selected Legal Issues
This report provides a brief overview of selected legal issues regarding the H1N1 influenza, including emergency measures, civil rights, liability issues, and employment issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc626971/
Background and Legal Issues Related to Stem Cell Research
In August 2001, President Bush announced that federal funds, with certain restrictions, may be used to conduct research on human embryonic stem cells. Federal research is limited to “the more than 60” existing stem cell lines that were derived (1) with the informed consent of the donors; (2) from excess embryos created solely for reproductive purposes; and (3) without any financial inducements to the donors. No federal funds may be used for the derivation or use of stem cell lines derived from newly destroyed embryos; the creation of any human embryos for research purposes; or cloning of human embryos for any purposes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9868/
Background and Legal Issues Related to Stem Cell Research
In August 2001, President Bush announced that federal funds, with certain restrictions, may be used to conduct research on human embryonic stem cells. This report explains the limitations on this research, as well as corresponding and related legislation to the issue of embryonic stem cell research, including the Stem Cell Research Enhancement Act of 2005. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10274/
Background and Legal Issues Related to Stem Cell Research
In August 2001, President Bush announced that federal funds, with certain restrictions, may be used to conduct research on human embryonic stem cells. Federal research is limited to “the more than 60” existing stem cell lines that were derived (1) with the informed consent of the donors; (2) from excess embryos created solely for reproductive purposes; and (3) without any financial inducements to the donors. No federal funds may be used for the derivation or use of stem cell lines derived from newly destroyed embryos; the creation of any human embryos for research purposes; or cloning of human embryos for any purposes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3268/
Authorized Generic Pharmaceuticals: Effects on Innovation
The practice of “authorized generics” has recently been the subject of considerable attention by the pharmaceutical industry, regulators, and members of Congress alike. An “authorized generic”–sometimes termed a “branded,” “flanking,” or “pseudo” generic–is a pharmaceutical that is marketed by or on behalf of a brand name drug company, but is sold under a generic name. Although the availability of an additional competitor in the generic drug market would appear to be favorable to consumers, authorized generics have nonetheless proven controversial. Some observers believe that authorized generics potentially discourage independent generic firms both from challenging drug patents and from selling their own products. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9508/
Iraq: U.S. Casualties
This report consists of a brief table summarizing casualty data compiled by the Department of Defense (DOD), including fatalities during Operation Iraqi Freedom since March 19, 2003, and since May 1, 2003, including statistics on those wounded, but not killed, since March 19, 2003. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26316/
Iraq: U.S. Casualties
This report consists of a brief table summarizing casualty data compiled by the Department of Defense (DOD), including fatalities during Operation Iraqi Freedom since March 19, 2003, and since May 1, 2003, including statistics on those wounded, but not killed, since March 19, 2003. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26315/
Veterans' Medical Care: FY2006 Appropriations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7452/
DNA Testing for Law Enforcement: Legislative Issues for Congress
DNA evidence is a powerful forensic tool in criminal cases. Its use and capabilities have increased substantially since it was first introduced in the late 1980s. That growth has led to the emergence of the following issues that were considered by the 106th Congress in legislative initiatives: eliminating the nationwide backlog of unanalyzed DNA samples, expanding the kinds of offenders who are profiled, providing opportunities for post-conviction testing of DNA evidence, and continuing development of forensic science capabilities. This report discusses those and related issues and the legislation proposed and enacted to address them. It begins by describing provisions in prior federal law and then discusses issues and the legislation proposed, including the enacted DNA Analysis Backlog Elimination Act of 2000 (H.R. 4640, which became P.L. 106-546). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7378/
Veterans' Medical Care Appropriations and Funding Process
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7385/
Stem Cell Research
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7148/
Stem Cell Research
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7149/
Stem Cell Research
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7150/
Stem Cell Research
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7151/
Vaccine Policy Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7268/
Treatment of Health Care Expenses under the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7753/
Biotechnology: Commercialization of Academic Research
This report provides an overview of the commercialization of academic research h in the field of biotechnology. It offers a brief definition, background and policy analysis, as well as legislation and hearings regarding the topic. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8589/
Stem Cell Research
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6919/
Influenza Vaccine Shortages and Implications
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6128/
Medical Malpractice Liability Reform: Legal Issues and Fifty-State Survey of Caps on Punitive Damages and Noneconomic Damages
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6390/
Medical Malpractice Liability Reform: Legal Issues and Fifty-State Survey of Caps on Punitive Damages and Noneconomic Damages
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6391/
Medical Malpractice Liability Reform: Legal Issues and Fifty-State Survey of Caps on Punitive Damages and Noneconomic Damages
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6392/
Medical Malpractice Liability Reform: Legal Issues and Fifty-State Survey of Caps on Punitive Damages and Noneconomic Damages
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6468/
The 2009 Influenza Pandemic: U.S. Responses to Global Human Cases
This report discusses the April 2009 outbreak of the influenza strain known as H1N1, or commonly, swine influenza. This report describes the distribution of the virus and the statistics of affected areas, as well as international and U.S. efforts to treat infected persons, respond to outbreaks in various countries (such as Mexico and other Latin American nations), and prepare for a possible influenza pandemic. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26157/