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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV): World Health Organization Responses

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV): World Health Organization Responses

Date: July 2, 2015
Creator: Salaam-Blyther, Tiaji
Description: This report discusses responses to the recent outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which has spread to more than a dozen countries.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Neglected Tropical Diseases: Background, Responses, and Issues for Congress

Neglected Tropical Diseases: Background, Responses, and Issues for Congress

Date: January 21, 2011
Creator: Salaam-Blyther, Tiaji
Description: Over the past decade, global health has become a priority in U.S. foreign policy, more than tripling U.S. funding for such efforts. This report discusses neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), a group of 17 diseases that are found primarily among the poorest people in 149 countries and territories. NTDs are an important focus of U.S. global health assistance and may come under scrutiny as the 112th Congress debates spending levels for ongoing global health programs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR): Funding Issues After a Decade of Implementation, FY2004-FY2013

The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR): Funding Issues After a Decade of Implementation, FY2004-FY2013

Date: October 10, 2012
Creator: Salaam-Blyther, Tiaji
Description: This report outlines U.S. spending on global HIV/AIDS programs since the inception of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), analyzes global HIV/AIDS funding by other donors, and highlights key issues pertaining to funding that will face the 113th Congress as it considers the future of PEPFAR
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Progress in Combating Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs): U.S. and Global Efforts from FY2006 to FY2013

Progress in Combating Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs): U.S. and Global Efforts from FY2006 to FY2013

Date: January 22, 2013
Creator: Salaam-Blyther, Tiaji
Description: This report discusses the prevalence of "neglected tropical diseases" (NTDs), U.S. and global actions to address them, and options the 113th Congress might consider.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. and International Health Responses to the Ebola Outbreak in West Africa

U.S. and International Health Responses to the Ebola Outbreak in West Africa

Date: October 29, 2014
Creator: Salaam-Blyther, Tiaji
Description: In March 2014, an Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak was reported in Guinea, West Africa. The outbreak is the first in West Africa and has caused an unprecedented number of cases and deaths. The outbreak is continuing to spread in Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia (the "affected countries"); it has been contained in Nigeria and Senegal, and has been detected in Mali. As of October 22, 2014, more than 10,000 people have contracted EVD, more than half of whom have died. This report focuses on the health impacts of the outbreak and discusses U.S. and international responses to those health challenges.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. and International Responses to the Global Spread of Avian Flu: Issues for Congress

U.S. and International Responses to the Global Spread of Avian Flu: Issues for Congress

Date: April 4, 2006
Creator: Salaam-Blyther, Tiaji
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. and International Responses to the Global Spread of Avian Flu: Issues for Congress

U.S. and International Responses to the Global Spread of Avian Flu: Issues for Congress

Date: May 1, 2006
Creator: Salaam-Blyther, Tiaji
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. and International Responses to the Global Spread of Avian Flu: Issues for Congress

U.S. and International Responses to the Global Spread of Avian Flu: Issues for Congress

Date: February 23, 2006
Creator: Salaam-Blyther, Tiaji & Chanlett-Avery, Emma
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. and International Responses to the Global Spread of Avian Flu: Issues for Congress

U.S. and International Responses to the Global Spread of Avian Flu: Issues for Congress

Date: January 11, 2006
Creator: Salaam-Blyther, Tiaji & Chanlett-Avery, Emma
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. and International Responses to the Global Spread of Avian Flu: Issues for Congress

U.S. and International Responses to the Global Spread of Avian Flu: Issues for Congress

Date: January 9, 2006
Creator: Salaam-Blyther, Tiaji & Chanlett-Avery, Emma
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. and International Responses to the Global Spread of Avian Flu: Issues for Congress

U.S. and International Responses to the Global Spread of Avian Flu: Issues for Congress

Date: February 6, 2006
Creator: Salaam-Blyther, Tiaji & Chanlett-Avery, Emma
Description: This report will provide an account of global H5N1-related human infections and deaths, outline U.S. government and international responses to the global spread of H5N1, discuss situations in various countries affected by H5N1, and present some foreign policy issues for Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria: Issues for Congress and U.S. Contributions from FY2001 to FY2013

The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria: Issues for Congress and U.S. Contributions from FY2001 to FY2013

Date: May 15, 2012
Creator: Salaam-Blyther, Tiaji & Kendall, Alexandra E.
Description: The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (Global Fund, or the Fund) was established in 2002 as a public-private partnership that could provide significant financial support for global responses to HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria. In November 2011, the Global Fund Board announced that due to inadequate resources from donors, it would cancel its 11th round of funding, but would maintain support for existing activities to avoid disruptions in ongoing services. Global health advocates urge Congress to meet the President's FY2013 request for the Fund in order to support the sustainability of its activities and to encourage continued contributions from other donors. Although Congress has traditionally been a strong supporter of the Fund, several issues may affect congressional views about the Fund in the future, which are discussed in this report.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Genetic Exceptionalism: Genetic Information and Public Policy

Genetic Exceptionalism: Genetic Information and Public Policy

Date: February 14, 2008
Creator: Sarata, Amanda K.
Description: This report provides an overview of the nature of genetic information and its implications for individuals, family, and society. Individuals utilize genetic information to guide health care and other decisions, when possible, and may experience anxiety as a result of genetic test results. Genetic test results for an individual may often be informative for other close family members and thus influence their care decisions. Society must grapple with the effect genetic information may have on our conception of disease, as well as its impact on issues like privacy and equity. The report ends by summarizing the main policy issues involved with a genetic exceptionalist approach to public policy, including defining genetic information; physically separating genetic information from other medical information; unintended disparities between “genetic” and “nongenetic” disease; and the effect of legislation on participation in genetic research, on uptake of genetic technology and on the delivery of high quality health care.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Mental Health Parity and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010

Mental Health Parity and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010

Date: December 28, 2011
Creator: Sarata, Amanda K.
Description: This report provides a brief background on mental health parity and the policy discussion around parity in health insurance coverage; an overview of federal mental health parity law prior to the enactment of the ACA; and an analysis of the impact of the ACA.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Mental Health Parity and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010

Mental Health Parity and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010

Date: January 7, 2011
Creator: Sarata, Amanda K.
Description: This report provides a brief background on mental health parity and the policy discussion around parity in health insurance coverage; an overview of federal mental health parity law prior to the enactment of the ACA; and an analysis of the impact of the ACA.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Regulation of Clinical Tests: In Vitro Diagnostic (IVD) Devices, Laboratory Developed Tests (LDTs), and Genetic Tests

Regulation of Clinical Tests: In Vitro Diagnostic (IVD) Devices, Laboratory Developed Tests (LDTs), and Genetic Tests

Date: March 27, 2014
Creator: Sarata, Amanda K.
Description: In vitro diagnostic (IVD) devices are used in the analysis of human samples, such as blood or tissue, to provide information in making health care decisions. Examples of IVDs include pregnancy test kits or blood glucose tests for home use; laboratory tests for infectious disease, such as HIV or hepatitis, and routine blood tests, such as cholesterol and anemia; and tests for various genetic diseases or conditions. More recently, a specific type of diagnostic test--called a companion diagnostic--has been developed that may be used to select the best therapy, at the right dose, at the correct time for a particular patient; this is often referred to as personalized or precision medicine. This report provides an overview of federal regulation of IVDs by FDA, through the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act (FFDCA) and the Public Health Service Act (PHSA), and by CMS, through the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) of 1988.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Regulation of Clinical Tests: In Vitro Diagnostic (IVD) Devices, Laboratory Developed Tests (LDTs), and Genetic Tests

Regulation of Clinical Tests: In Vitro Diagnostic (IVD) Devices, Laboratory Developed Tests (LDTs), and Genetic Tests

Date: December 17, 2014
Creator: Sarata, Amanda K. & Johnson, Judith A.
Description: In vitro diagnostic (IVD) devices are used in the analysis of human samples, such as blood or tissue, to provide information in making health care decisions. Examples of IVDs include pregnancy test kits or blood glucose tests for home use; laboratory tests for infectious disease, such as HIV or hepatitis, and routine blood tests, such as cholesterol and anemia; and tests for various genetic diseases or conditions. More recently, a specific type of diagnostic test--called a companion diagnostic--has been developed that may be used to select the best therapy, at the right dose, at the correct time for a particular patient; this is often referred to as personalized or precision medicine. This report provides an overview of federal regulation of IVDs by FDA, through the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act (FFDCA) and the Public Health Service Act (PHSA), and by CMS, through the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) of 1988.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal R&D, Drug Discovery, and Pricing: Insights from the NIH-University-Industry Relationship

Federal R&D, Drug Discovery, and Pricing: Insights from the NIH-University-Industry Relationship

Date: June 19, 2000
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H
Description: Interest in methods to provide drugs at lower cost, particularly for the elderly, has rekindled discussion over the role the federal government plays in facilitating the creation of new pharmaceuticals for the marketplace. This report explores the issue of whether or not the substantial federal investment in health-related research and development (R&D) entitles the public to commensurate consideration in prices charged for any resulting drugs. It is intended to provide the reader with an understanding of the rationale for government support of R&D and subsequent efforts to facilitate private sector commercialization of new technologies generated from such work. Concerns surrounding innovation in pharmaceuticals and biotechnology are discussed within the broader context of the federal role in facilitating technological progress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Patent Reform: Issues in the Biomedical and Software Industries

Patent Reform: Issues in the Biomedical and Software Industries

Date: April 7, 2006
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Hatch-Waxman Act: Proposed Legislative Changes

The Hatch-Waxman Act: Proposed Legislative Changes

Date: September 3, 2002
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H & Thomas, John R
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Hatch-Waxman Act: Proposed Legislative Changes Affecting Pharmaceutical Patents

The Hatch-Waxman Act: Proposed Legislative Changes Affecting Pharmaceutical Patents

Date: September 17, 2003
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H & Thomas, John R
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Hatch-Waxman Act: Proposed Legislative Changes Affecting Pharmaceutical Patents

The Hatch-Waxman Act: Proposed Legislative Changes Affecting Pharmaceutical Patents

Date: October 9, 2003
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H & Thomas, John R
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Hatch-Waxman Act: Proposed Legislative Changes Affecting Pharmaceutical Patents

The Hatch-Waxman Act: Proposed Legislative Changes Affecting Pharmaceutical Patents

Date: January 5, 2004
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H & Thomas, John R
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Hatch-Waxman Act: Proposed Legislative Changes Affecting Pharmaceutical Patents

The Hatch-Waxman Act: Proposed Legislative Changes Affecting Pharmaceutical Patents

Date: June 30, 2003
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H & Thomas, John R
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department