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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Ergonomics in the Workplace: Is It Time for an OSHA Standard?
Improper ergonomic design of jobs is one of the leading causes of work-related illness, accounting for perhaps a third of employers’ costs under state workers’ compensation laws. Due to the wide variety of circumstances, however, any comprehensive standard would probably have to be complex and costly, while scientific understanding of the problem is not complete. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1865/
Assisted Suicide and the Controlled Substances Act: Legal Issues Associated with the Proposed Pain Relief Promotion Act
The Pain Relief Promotion Act, as proposed in the 106th Congress, provided that the Attorney General, in determining whether the registration of a doctor for the administration of controlled substances is in the public interest, should give no force and effect to state law authorizing or permitting assisted suicide or euthanasia. This language would appear to have been designed to abrogate the legal reasoning set forth by the Attorney General in a press release regarding the application of the Controlled Substances Act to acts of physician-assisted suicide. It would not, however, appear to have required the Attorney General to revoke such registrations; nor would it have criminalized assisted suicide or euthanasia. This report will be updated as congressional action warrants. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1877/
OSHA Reform: "Partnership" with Employers
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Endocrine Disruption: An Introduction
Exposure to certain chemicals in the environment could disrupt the hormone systems of animals and humans, according to some scientists who are concerned about potential risks to public health and ecosystems. Congress has mandated chemical screening to assess the potential of pesticides and drinking water contaminants to influence the normal functions of female, male and thyroid hormones. As conflicting scientific evidence accumluates on the hormone disruption hypothesis, legislators may consider proposals to increase or decrease funding for the endocrine disruption screening program, or to expand its requirements to include additional chemicals or hormone functions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1879/
The Prescription Drug Import Provisions of the FY2001 Agriculture Appropriations Act, P.L. 106-387
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Stem Cell Research
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Military Medical Care Services: Questions and Answers
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Pharmacy Benefit Managers
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Medicare: Side-by-Side Comparison of Selected Prescription Drug Bills
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Stem Cell Research
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The National Institutes of Health: An Overview
The National Institutes of Health is the focal point of federal health research. It uses its $17.8 billion budget to support more than 50,000 scientists working at 2,000 institutions across the United States, as well as to conduct biomedical and behavioral research and research training at its own facilities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26108/
Medicare: Selected Prescription Drug Proposals
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Federal R and D, Drug Discovery, and Pricing: Insights from the NIH-University-Industry Relationship
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Medicare: Prescription Drug Proposals
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Labeling of Genetically Modified Foods
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Science, Technology, and Medicine: Issues Facing the 106th Congress, Second Session
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Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement (1998): Overview, Implementation by States, and Congressional Issues
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Science, Technology, and Medicine: Issues Facing the 106th Congress, First Session
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Tobacco-Related Activities and Programs in the Federal Government: A Summary
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The Tobacco Settlement: Issues
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Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention: Federal Mandates for Local Government
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Disease Funding and NIH Priority Setting
Research at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has strong political support, but a heated debate rages over the allocation of NIH funds among various diseases. NIH contends that decisions are made based on scientific opportunity while critics of the NIH process charge that spending often follows current politics and political correctness. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs747/
Science, Technology, and Medicine: Issues Facing the 105th Congress, Second Session
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Tobacco Control: Enforcement and Effectiveness of Federal and State Youth Access Laws
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Tobacco Legislation in the 105th Congress: Side-by-Side Comparison of S. 1415, S. 1530, S. 1638, S. 1889, H.R. 3474, and H.R. 3868
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Veterans and Smoking-Related Illnesses: Congress Enacts Limits to Compensation
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Compensating Farmers for the Tobacco Settlement
The legislative proposals designed to reduce smoking, primarily by teenagers, are likely to have negative economic consequences for tobacco growers and tobacco-dependent communities. This report discusses the possibility of some kind of compensation to farmers as part of the settlement package legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs563/
Summary and Comparison of the Major Agricultural Provisions of the Tobacco Settlement Policy Proposals
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Tobacco Price Support: An Overview of the Program
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Tobacco-Related Programs and Activities of the U.S. Department of Agriculture: Operation and Cost
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Tobacco Marketing and Advertising Restrictions in S. 1415, 105th Congress: First Amendment Issues
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Tobacco Issues: National Public Opinion
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The Proposed Tobacco Settlement: Effects on Prices, Smoking Behavior, and Income Distribution
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The Proposed Tobacco Settlement: Who Pays for the Health Costs of Smoking?
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Cloning: Where Do We Go From Here?
News in February 1997 that scientists in Scotland had succeeded in cloning an adult sheep ignited a worldwide debate. Of concern are the ethical and social implications of the potential application of cloning to produce human beings. In response to concerns about the potential application of cloning to produce humans, actions were taken by the Administration and Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs746/
Tobacco Marketing and Advertising Restrictions in S. 1648, 105th Congress: First Amendment Issues
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AIDS Funding for Federal Government Programs: FY1981-FY1999
This report provides a synopsis of the budget activity related to AIDS from the discovery of the disease in 1981 through FY1999. Funding for AIDS research, prevention and treatment programs within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) discretionary budget has increased from $200,000 in FY1981 to an estimated $3.85 billion in FY1999. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs745/
Tobacco Advertising: The Constitutionality of Limiting its Tax Deductibility
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Cancer Research: Selected Federal Spending and Morbidity and Mortality Statistics
This report shows federal spending at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for research on selected cancer sites. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs744/
Human Embryo Research
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Pfiesteria
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Pfiesteria
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Prescription Drug User Fee Act of 1992: Effects on Bringing New Drugs to Market
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The Tobacco Settlement: An Overview
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Tobacco Advertising: Whether the FDA's Restrictions Violate Freedom of Speech
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Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses
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Science, Technology, and Medicine: Issues Facing the 105th Congress, First Session
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World Health Organization: A Fact Sheet
The World Health organization (WHO), established in 1948, is the United Nations system's authority on international public health issues. It assists governments in improving national health services and in establishing worldwide standards for foods, chemicals, and biological and pharmaceutical products. WHO concentrates on preventive rather than curative programs, including efforts to eradicate endemic and other widespread diseases, stabilize population growth, improve nutrition, sanitation, and maternal and child care. WHO is not an operational agency. It works through contracts with other agencies and private voluntary organizations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26072/
Biotechnology, Indigenous Peoples, and Intellectual Property Rights
This report examines intellectual property right in pharmaceuticals in a particular context, namely, medicinal products and processes derived from the biodiversity resources of areas inhabited by indigenous peoples. This report discusses the international law regarding intellectual property rights in traditional knowledge and the American laws regarding traditional knowledge. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8176/
Drug Control
How to prevent the non-medical use of dependency-producing drugs has been a public policy concern for at least a century. A large part of the responsibility for controlling such substances has been assumed by the Federal Government. Historically based on decision to restrict availability through a system of close regulation, including selective prohibition, the current Federal anti-drugs strategy lives on activities and programs in five major areas: 1) regulation and other “enforcement” efforts; 2) support for international control and for control efforts of individual drug-producing and drug-transiting countries; 3) education and other prevention activities; 4 ) treatment and rehabilitation for drug-dependent persons; and ( 5 ) research on drugs , drug dependency, and prevention and treatment methods. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8518/