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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Global Health Programs: FY2001-FY2010
This report explains the role the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) plays in U.S. global health assistance, highlights how much the agency has spent on global health efforts from FY2001 to FY2010, and discusses how funding to each of its programs changed during this period. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689302/
"Don't Ask, Don't Tell": The Law and Military Policy on Same-Sex Behavior
This report describes the "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" military policy, which holds that the presence in the armed forces of persons who demonstrate a propensity or intent to engage in same-sex acts would create an unacceptable risk to the high standards of morale, good order and discipline, and unit cohesion which are the essence of military capability. This report also describes recent efforts by certain Members of Congress to amending this policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689509/
The 2009 Influenza Pandemic: Selected Legal Issues
This report provides a brief overview of selected legal issues regarding the H1N1 influenza, including emergency measures, civil rights, liability issues, and employment issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689377/
The 2009 Influenza Pandemic: An Overview
This report describes the World Health Organization (WHO) process to determine the phase of a threatened or emerging flu pandemic, and touches on several related issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627009/
Follow-On Biologics: Intellectual Property and Innovation Issues
This report reviews doctrinal and policy issues pertaining to follow-on biologics. The report first introduces the application of federal food and drug legislation to follow-on biologics. It next turns to the patent implications of marketing follow-on biologics. Following this review of substantive law, the remainder of the report introduces innovation policy issues pertaining to follow-on biologics. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689142/
Health Care Reform: An Introduction
This report provides an introduction to health care reform. It focuses on the three predominant concerns just mentioned--coverage, cost and spending, and quality--and some of the legislative issues within which they likely will be debated, including the scope of reform (particularly whether Medicare and Medicaid should be included); the choice between public and private coverage; whether employment-based insurance should be strengthened, weakened, or left alone; and what role states might play. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689458/
FY2009 Spring Supplemental Appropriations for Overseas Contingency Operations
This report discusses the White House's request for supplemental appropriations that include funding for defense, foreign affairs, and domestic fire fighting. The report details the different programs and areas that the appropriations would fund, including operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, preparedness and emergency management measures relating to the swine flu outbreak, border security between the United States and Mexico, benchmark assessment in Afghanistan and Pakistan, and other general defense operations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689253/
Iraq: U.S. Casualties
This report consists of a brief table summarizing casualty data compiled by the Department of Defense (DOD), including fatalities during Operation Iraqi Freedom since March 19, 2003, and since May 1, 2003, including statistics on those wounded, but not killed, since March 19, 2003. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26315/
Potential Farm Sector Effects of 2009 H1N1 "Swine Flu": Questions and Answers
This report discusses how the outbreak of the strain of influenza A (H1N1), commonly referred to as "swine flu," affected the domestic and international pork markets. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26156/
The 2009 Influenza Pandemic: U.S. Responses to Global Human Cases
This report discusses the April 2009 outbreak of the influenza strain known as H1N1, or commonly, swine influenza. This report describes the distribution of the virus and the statistics of affected areas, as well as international and U.S. efforts to treat infected persons, respond to outbreaks in various countries (such as Mexico and other Latin American nations), and prepare for a possible influenza pandemic. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26157/
The 2009 Influenza Pandemic: Selected Legal Issues
In late April 2009, human cases of infection with a novel influenza A(H1N1) virus, commonly known as "swine flu," were identified. Since then, the virus has become widespread. It is timely to examine the legal issues surrounding this public health threat. This report provides a brief overview of selected legal issues including emergency measures, civil rights, liability issues, and employment issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26152/
FY2009 Spring Supplemental Appropriations for Overseas Contingency Operations
This report discusses the White House's request for supplemental appropriations that include funding for defense, foreign affairs, and domestic fire fighting. The report details the different programs and areas that the appropriations would fund, including operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, preparedness and emergency management measures relating to the swine flu outbreak, border security between the United States and Mexico, benchmark assessment in Afghanistan and Pakistan, and other general defense operations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26148/
The 2009 Influenza Pandemic: An Overview
This report first provides a synopsis of key events, actions taken, and authorities invoked by WHO, the U.S. federal government, and state and local governments. It then discusses the WHO process to determine the phase of a flu pandemic, and selected actions taken by the Departments of Homeland Security and Health and Human Services, and by state and local authorities. Next, it lists congressional hearings held to date, and provides information about appropriations and funding for pandemic flu activities. Finally, it summarizes U.S. government pandemic flu planning documents and lists sources for additional information about the situation as it unfolds. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26151/
The Role of the Department of Defense During A Flu Pandemic
This report focuses on the role of the Department of Defense (DOD) in supporting the nation's domestic response effort to a flu pandemic, although it will also touch on DOD's international role. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700865/
FDA Tobacco Regulation: The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009
This report focuses on the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. It includes a brief discussion of the contrasting views of FDA tobacco regulation held by the public health community and the industry, and provides some analysis of a number of key regulatory issues that the bill raises. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700574/
Intellectual Property Rights and Access to Medicines: International Trade Issues
This report focuses on the relationship between intellectual property right (IPR) provisions in international and U.S. trade policy and access to medicines. This issue represents one component of a broader debate about the relationship between trade policy and public health. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700643/
Iraq: U.S. Casualties
This report consists of a brief table summarizing casualty data compiled by the Department of Defense (DOD), including fatalities during Operation Iraqi Freedom since March 19, 2003, and since May 1, 2003, including statistics on those wounded, but not killed, since March 19, 2003. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26316/
Direct-to-Consumer Advertising of Prescription Drugs
This report describes the current status of direct-to-consumer (DTC) drug advertising; analyzes issues surrounding it; and discusses potential options for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700845/
Immigration Policies and Issues on Health-Related Grounds for Exclusion
This report discusses the criteria that foreign nationals must meet before admission to the United States, including the reasons why a foreign national might be denied admission, most particularly on health-related grounds. This report discusses such issues in relation to the recent outbreak of the 2009 H1N1 ("swine flu") virus, and how the outbreak has affected various government agencies, such as the Customs and Border Protection (CBP) agency within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). This report also discusses efforts to confront and address such issues on a legislative front. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26155/
Military Medical Care: Questions and Answers
This report attempts to answer basic questions about defense health care, its beneficiary population, the medical services it provides, its costs, and major changes that are underway or have been proposed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700825/
Alert Systems for Missing Adults in Eleven States: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the emerging development of nationwide alert systems to recover missing adults, such as those with mental impairment (such as Alzheimer's disease), developmental disabilities, or suicidal tendencies. This report provides an overview of such alert systems in 11 states: Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, Texas, and Virginia. This report also provides a discussion of issues for Congress to consider with respect to the federal role, if any, in developing state alert programs for missing adults. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26150/
The 2009 Influenza Pandemic: Selected Legal Issues
Recent human cases of infection with a novel influenza A(H1N1) virus have been identified both internationally and in the United States. Since there has been human to human transmission and the new virus has the potential to become pandemic, it is timely to examine legal issues surrounding this emerging public health threat. This report will provide a brief overview of selected legal issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689481/
The 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) "Swine Flu" Outbreak: An Overview
This report provides an overview of key actions taken and authorities invoked by WHO and the U.S. government. First, it discusses the WHO process to determine the phase of a threatened or emerging flu pandemic and touches on a number of related issues. The report then examines actions taken by the Departments of Homeland Security and Health and Human Services and provides information about appropriations and funding for pandemic flu activities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743493/
FY2009 Spring Supplemental Appropriations for Overseas Contingency Operations
This report discusses the White House's request for supplemental appropriations that include funding for defense, foreign affairs, and domestic fire fighting. The report details the different programs and areas that the appropriations would fund, including operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, preparedness and emergency management measures relating to the swine flu outbreak, border security between the United States and Mexico, benchmark assessment in Afghanistan and Pakistan, and other general defense operations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26149/
The 2009 Influenza Pandemic: Selected Legal Issues
Recent human cases of infection with a novel influenza A(H1N1) virus have been identified both internationally and in the United States. Since there has been human to human transmission and the new virus has the potential to become pandemic, it is timely to examine legal issues surrounding this emerging public health threat. This report will provide a brief overview of selected legal issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689254/
Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress
This report explores the relationship between the United States and Mexico in terms of trade, drug trafficking, and cooperative disease control and management. Specifically, the report discusses the Mérida Initiative, the trade dispute involving the implementation of NAFTA trucking provisions, Secretary of State Clinton's March 2009 visit to Mexico, and the April 2009 outbreak of the H1N1 "swine flu" virus. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26225/
The 2009 H1N1 "Swine Flu" Outbreak: An Overview
This report provides an introduction to the situation regarding the potential of a global human influenza pandemic caused by the new H1N1 flu strain. It includes a brief chronology of events; a discussion of key actions taken and authorities invoked by the WHO and the U.S. government; and information about key U.S. government pandemic flu planning documents. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743456/
Stem Cell Research: Ethical Issues
This report discusses the ethical arguments that surround human embryonic stem cell research (ESR). Human stem cell research is controversial not because of its goals, but rather because of the means of obtaining some of the cells. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700798/
Federal Tort Claims Act
The Federal Tort Claims Act is the statute by which the United States authorizes tort suits to be brought against itself. With exceptions, it makes the United States liable for injuries caused by the negligent or wrongful act or omission of any federal employee acting within the scope of his employment, in accordance with the law of the state where the act or omission occurred. This report discusses, among other things, the application of the Feres doctrine to suits for injuries caused by medical malpractice in the military, the prohibition of suits by victims of atomic testing, Supreme Court cases interpreting the discretionary function exception, the extent to which federal employees may be held liable for torts they commit in the scope of their employment, and the government contractor defense to products liability design defect suits. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29494/
The U.S. Mental Health Delivery System Infrastructure: A Primer
This report begins with a historical perspective on delivery of mental health care services. Next, it describes the health care delivery system within which mental health care is currently provided and presents the various mechanisms that finance the current system. In describing the mental health system, this report considers three aspects: Who provides care? Where is the care provided? Who pays for the care? Finally, this report analyzes the barriers to receiving mental health treatment and workforce training issues, and presents possible options for Congress to address these barriers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700846/
Selected Health Funding in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009
The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009, which the President signed into law on February 17, 2009, provided more than $17 billion in supplemental FY2009 discretionary appropriations for biomedical research, public health, and other health-related programs within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). This report discusses the health-related programs and activities funded by ARRA, including details of how the administering HHS agencies and offices plan to allocate, award, and spend the funds. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700847/
Medical Marijuana: Review and Analysis of Federal and State Policies
This report discusses the issue before Congress of whether to continue the federal prosecution of medical marijuana patients and their providers, in accordance with the federal Controlled Substances Act (CSA), or whether to relax federal marijuana prohibition enough to permit the medicinal use of botanical cannabis products when recommended by a physician, especially where permitted under state law. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700690/
Federal Taxation of the Drug Industry and Its Effects on New Drug Development
This report examines the impact of federal taxation on the incentive to invest in new drug development. More specifically, it looks at the provisions in current tax law that affect the performance of the drug industry, compares the industry's federal tax burden with that of other major industries, and assesses the effect of federal taxation on the incentive to invest in new drug development. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700831/
FDA Regulation of Follow-On Biologics
This report provides a brief introduction to the relevant law regarding follow-on biologics, the regulatory framework at the FDA, the scientific challenges for the FDA in considering the approval of follow-on biologics, and a description of the proposed legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700567/
End-of-Life Care: Services, Costs, Ethics, and Quality of Care
This report provides information on various aspects of end-of-life care: (1) demographic and historical changes affecting death and dying in the United States (2) the definitions of end-of-life, palliative, and hospice care (3) costs associated with end-of-life care (4) end-of-life care laws and ethics (5) quality of care at the end of life and (6) policy issues that would modify or expand the federal government's role in addressing end-of-life care. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743362/
Selected Health Funding in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009
This report compares funding provided for selected Health and Human Services (HHS) programs in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) conference report (H.Rept. 111-16) with the recommendations in the House- and Senate-passed versions of H.R. 1. It also briefly discusses ARRA's provisions on HIT and comparative effectiveness research as they relate to the funding. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700863/
Animal Identification: Overview and Issues
This report provides information about animal identification and proposed solutions. Livestock industry groups, animal health officials, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) have been working to establish a nationwide identification (ID) system capable of quickly tracking animals from birth to slaughter, to deal with animal diseases and/or to satisfy foreign market specifications. Some consumer groups are among those who believe ID also would be useful for food safety or retail labeling purposes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87388/
Public Health and Medical Preparedness and Response: Issues in the 111th Congress
This report summarizes key issues in domestic public health and medical preparedness and response, citing other CRS Reports and sources of additional information. Key recent events--the 2001 terrorist attacks, Hurricane Katrina, and concerns about an influenza ("flu") pandemic, among others--sharpened congressional interest in the nation's systems to track and respond to public health threats. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743554/
Federal R&D, Drug Discovery, and Pricing: Insights from the NIH-University-Industry Relationship
This report explores the reasons behind government funding of research and development and subsequent efforts to facilitate private sector commercialization of the results of such work, without addressing issues associated with drug costs or pricing. It particularly looks at the manner in which the National Institutes of Health (NIH) supports research to encourage the development of new pharmaceuticals and therapeutics, particularly through cooperative activities among academia, industry, and government. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743611/
Military Medical Care: Questions and Answers
This report attempts to answer basic questions about defense health care, its beneficiary population, the medical services it provides, its costs, and major changes that are underway or have been proposed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700639/
Iraqi Civilian Deaths Estimates
This report presents various governmental and nongovernmental estimates of Iraqi civilian dead and wounded. The Department of Defense (DOD) regularly updates total U.S. military death and wounded statistics from Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). However, no Iraqi or U.S. government office regularly releases publicly available statistics on Iraqi civilian deaths or civilians who have been wounded. Statistics on Iraqi civilian dead and wounded are sometimes available through alternative sources, such as nonprofit organizations, or through statements made by officials to the press. Because these estimates are based on varying time periods and have been created using differing methodologies, readers should exercise caution when using these statistics and should look on them as guideposts rather than as statements of fact. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463433/
Nonmarital Childbearing: Trends, Reasons, and Public Policy Interventions
This report analyzes the trends in nonmarital childbearing, discusses some of the characteristics of unwed mothers, addresses some issues involving the fathers of children born outside of marriage, covers many of the reasons for nonmarital childbearing, examines the impact of nonmarital births on families and on the nation, and presents the public policy interventions that have been used to prevent nonmarital births or ameliorate some of the negative financial consequences that are sometimes associated with nonmarital childbearing. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26294/
Military Medical Care: Questions and Answers
This report answers several frequently-asked questions about military health care, particularly related to TRICARE and its various aspects. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795652/
The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Coverage of Contagious Diseases
The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), provides broad nondiscrimination protection for individuals with disabilities in employment public services, public accommodations and services operated by private entities, transportation, and telecommunication. This report briefly discusses the Americans with Disabilities Act's statutory provisions relating to contagious diseases and relevant judicial interpretations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10648/
Bisphenol A (BPA) in Plastics and Possible Human Health Effects
Bisphenol A (BPA) is used to produce certain types of plastic. Containers made of these plastics may expose people to small amounts of BPA in food and water. Some animal experiments have found that fetal and infant development may be harmed by small amounts of BPA, but scientists disagree about the value of the animal studies for predicting harmful effects in people. This report discusses this issue and relevant legislation, as well as inquiries into studies currently underway to determine the true harm inherent in BPA and the degree to which people are regularly exposed to BPA. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10735/
Iraqi Civilian Deaths Estimates
This report presents various governmental and nongovernmental estimates of Iraqi civilian dead and wounded. The Department of Defense (DOD) regularly updates total U.S. military death and wounded statistics from Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). However, no Iraqi or U.S. government office regularly releases publicly available statistics on Iraqi civilian deaths or civilians who have been wounded. Statistics on Iraqi civilian dead and wounded are sometimes available through alternative sources, such as nonprofit organizations, or through statements made by officials to the press. Because these estimates are based on varying time periods and have been created using differing methodologies, readers should exercise caution when using these statistics and should look on them as guideposts rather than as statements of fact. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10683/
Veterans Affairs: Health Care and Benefits for Veterans Exposed to Agent Orange
This report provides an overview of health care services and disability compensation benefits available to Vietnam veterans, Children of Vietnam Era veterans, and non-Vietnam veterans exposed to herbicides. This is followed by a discussion of litigation pertaining to Navy veterans of the Vietnam Era who served offshore and were never physically present on Vietnamese soil. The report concludes with a discussion of epidemiologic research conducted to study the health effects of Agent Orange and dioxin exposure on Vietnam veterans. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462214/
International Convention Against Doping in Sport: Issues for Congress
The International Convention Against Doping in Sport seeks to harmonize anti-doping commitments for non-professional sports at the international level. Issues that may continue to arise as policymakers evaluate the Convention include its relationship to anti-doping regulations in professional sports and the legitimacy and effectiveness of current international anti-doping activities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10749/
Military Medical Care: Questions and Answers
This report answers several frequently-asked questions about military health care, including: how the system is structured, a TRICARE summary, TRICARE eligibility and plan options, cost of military health care to beneficiaries, relationship of TRICARE to MEDICARE, how the Affordable Care Act affects TRICARE, long-term trends of defense health care costs, and a summary of the fund which funds TRICARE (the Medicare Eligible Retiree Health Care fund). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc770600/
Public Health and Medical Preparedness and Response: Issues in the 110th Congress
The 2001 terrorist attacks, Hurricane Katrina, and concerns about an influenza ("flu") pandemic have sharpened congressional interest in the nation's systems to track and respond to public health threats. The 109th Congress passed laws that reauthorized public health and medical preparedness and response programs in the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), and reorganized parts of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), including the establishment of an Office of Health Affairs (OHA). This report discusses key issues in public health and medical preparedness and response, citing additional CRS reports and other resources. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10695/