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 Country: United States
 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Military Health Care: The Issue of “Promised” Benefits

Military Health Care: The Issue of “Promised” Benefits

Date: February 10, 2000
Creator: Burrelli, David F.
Description: In the debate over the Department of Defense policy on military health care benefits, many military personnel and retirees say that they were promised “free health care for life” when they entered the armed forces. What benefits are available and who is eligible to receive these benefits are matters determined by Congress. This report discusses the issue of “promises” of lifetime health care benefits made to military retirees.
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Medicare: Prescription Drug Proposals

Medicare: Prescription Drug Proposals

Date: June 8, 2000
Creator: O'Sullivan, Jennifer
Description: This report provides an overview of the President’s plan and the legislation introduced to date in the 106th Congress. It
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Federal R&D, Drug Discovery, and Pricing: Insights from the NIH-University-Industry Relationship

Federal R&D, Drug Discovery, and Pricing: Insights from the NIH-University-Industry Relationship

Date: June 19, 2000
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H
Description: Interest in methods to provide drugs at lower cost, particularly for the elderly, has rekindled discussion over the role the federal government plays in facilitating the creation of new pharmaceuticals for the marketplace. This report explores the issue of whether or not the substantial federal investment in health-related research and development (R&D) entitles the public to commensurate consideration in prices charged for any resulting drugs. It is intended to provide the reader with an understanding of the rationale for government support of R&D and subsequent efforts to facilitate private sector commercialization of new technologies generated from such work. Concerns surrounding innovation in pharmaceuticals and biotechnology are discussed within the broader context of the federal role in facilitating technological progress.
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Medical Records Privacy: Questions and Answers on the HIPAA Final Rule

Medical Records Privacy: Questions and Answers on the HIPAA Final Rule

Date: September 10, 2001
Creator: Redhead, C. Stephen
Description: This report discusses the issue facing Congress on whether to continue to support the executive branch’s prosecution of medical marijuana patients and their providers, in accordance with marijuana’s status as a Schedule I drug under the Controlled Substances Act, or whether to relax federal marijuana prohibition enough to permit the medical use of botanical cannabis products by seriously ill persons, especially in states that have created medical marijuana programs under state law.
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Medical Records Privacy: Questions and Answers on the HIPAA Final Rule

Medical Records Privacy: Questions and Answers on the HIPAA Final Rule

Date: October 3, 2002
Creator: Redhead, C. Stephen
Description: This report discusses the issue facing Congress on whether to continue to support the executive branch’s prosecution of medical marijuana patients and their providers, in accordance with marijuana’s status as a Schedule I drug under the Controlled Substances Act, or whether to relax federal marijuana prohibition enough to permit the medical use of botanical cannabis products by seriously ill persons, especially in states that have created medical marijuana programs under state law.
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Medical Records Privacy: Questions and Answers on the HIPAA Final Rule

Medical Records Privacy: Questions and Answers on the HIPAA Final Rule

Date: January 3, 2003
Creator: Redhead, C. Stephen
Description: This report discusses the issue facing Congress on whether to continue to support the executive branch’s prosecution of medical marijuana patients and their providers, in accordance with marijuana’s status as a Schedule I drug under the Controlled Substances Act, or whether to relax federal marijuana prohibition enough to permit the medical use of botanical cannabis products by seriously ill persons, especially in states that have created medical marijuana programs under state law.
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Medicare Prescription Drug Proposals: Estimates of Aged Beneficiaries Who Fall Below Income Criteria, by State

Medicare Prescription Drug Proposals: Estimates of Aged Beneficiaries Who Fall Below Income Criteria, by State

Date: February 11, 2003
Creator: Peterson, Chris L. & Morgan, Paulette C.
Description: This report discusses bills related to Medicare benefits, which include additional assistance for low-income beneficiaries. The assistance would have been in the form of reduced, subsidized or eliminated premiums, deductibles and other cost-sharing. Proposals in the 108th Congress will probably also include some of these features for low-income beneficiaries.
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Medical Records Privacy: Questions and Answers on the HIPAA Final Rule

Medical Records Privacy: Questions and Answers on the HIPAA Final Rule

Date: June 11, 2003
Creator: Redhead, C. Stephen
Description: This report discusses the issue facing Congress on whether to continue to support the executive branch’s prosecution of medical marijuana patients and their providers, in accordance with marijuana’s status as a Schedule I drug under the Controlled Substances Act, or whether to relax federal marijuana prohibition enough to permit the medical use of botanical cannabis products by seriously ill persons, especially in states that have created medical marijuana programs under state law.
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Smallpox Vaccine Injury Compensation

Smallpox Vaccine Injury Compensation

Date: June 13, 2003
Creator: Thaul, Susan
Description: This report discusses the Public Safety Officers’ Benefits Program, which provides for compensation of individuals injured by vaccinations given as part of a countermeasure plan declared by the Secretary of Health and Human Services in preparation for potential hostile activities involving the smallpox virus.
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Medicare: Beneficiary Cost-Sharing Under Proposed Prescription Drug Benefits

Medicare: Beneficiary Cost-Sharing Under Proposed Prescription Drug Benefits

Date: June 17, 2003
Creator: Peterson, Chris L
Description: This report examines these proposals as well as the “Medicare Rx Drug Benefit and Discount Act of 2003,” which was introduced by Representative Charles Rangel, the ranking member of the House Ways and Means Committee. Specifically, this report provides background on how the cost-sharing and premium provisions under each bill would affect the amount that a beneficiary pays annually for prescription drugs.
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Medicare Prescription Drug and Reform Legislation

Medicare Prescription Drug and Reform Legislation

Date: June 19, 2003
Creator: O'Sullivan, Jennifer; Chaikind, Hinda Ripps; Tilson, Sibyl L; Boulanger, Jennifer & Morgan, Paulette C
Description: This report describes the major features of S. 1, as ordered reported, and the measure to be considered by the House Ways and Means Committee, H.R. 2473, as ordered reported.
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Medicare: Beneficiary Cost-Sharing Under Proposed Prescription Drug Benefits

Medicare: Beneficiary Cost-Sharing Under Proposed Prescription Drug Benefits

Date: June 26, 2003
Creator: Peterson, Chris L
Description: This report provides background on how the cost-sharing and premium provisions under each bill would affect the amount that a beneficiary pays annually for prescription drugs. In addition, this report gives examples of how annual cost-sharing would differ for beneficiaries with various levels of total prescription drug spending in 2006 under the plans.
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Medicare Prescription Drug Provisions of S.1, as Passed by the Senate, and H.R. 1, as Passed by the House

Medicare Prescription Drug Provisions of S.1, as Passed by the Senate, and H.R. 1, as Passed by the House

Date: July 11, 2003
Creator: O'Sullivan, Jennifer
Description: This report discusses differences in the specifics of the prescription drug provisions in S. 1 and H.R. 1 and provides a side-by-side comparison of the Title I provisions of both bills.
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Medicare: Beneficiary Cost-Sharing Under Prescription Drug Legislation

Medicare: Beneficiary Cost-Sharing Under Prescription Drug Legislation

Date: July 25, 2003
Creator: Peterson, Chris L
Description: This report provides an analysis of how the cost-sharing and premium provisions under the Prescription Drug and Medicare Improvement Act of 2003 (S. 1) and the Medicare Prescription Drug and Modernization Act of 2003 (H bill would affect the amount that a beneficiary would pay annually for prescription drugs.
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Genetically Engineered Soybeans: Acceptance and Intellectual Property Rights Issues in South America

Genetically Engineered Soybeans: Acceptance and Intellectual Property Rights Issues in South America

Date: October 17, 2003
Creator: Schnepf, Randy
Description: This report discusses issues regarding genetically engineered soybeans in South America. U.S. soybean growers and trade officials charge that Argentina and Brazil–the United States’ two major export competitors in international soybean markets–gain an unfair trade advantage by routinely saving genetically-engineered (GE), Roundup Ready (RR) soybean seeds from the previous harvest (a practice prohibited in the United States) for planting in subsequent years.
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Patient Safety: Legislation to Promote Voluntary Reporting of Medical Errors

Patient Safety: Legislation to Promote Voluntary Reporting of Medical Errors

Date: November 26, 2003
Creator: Redhead, C. S.
Description: This report provides an overview and some analysis of the patient safety legislation that is being considered by the 108th Congress. It begins with background information on the nature and causes of medical errors, followed by a brief comparison of the differences between mandatory and voluntary reporting systems. The report then discusses some of the legal and policy issues facing state mandatory reporting systems and major national voluntary reporting systems, and identifies design features of effective reporting programs. It concludes with a discussion and side-by-side comparison of H.R. 663 and S. 720.
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Medical Records Privacy: Questions and Answers on the HIPAA Final Rule

Medical Records Privacy: Questions and Answers on the HIPAA Final Rule

Date: March 10, 2004
Creator: Redhead, C. Stephen
Description: This report discusses the issue facing Congress on whether to continue to support the executive branch’s prosecution of medical marijuana patients and their providers, in accordance with marijuana’s status as a Schedule I drug under the Controlled Substances Act, or whether to relax federal marijuana prohibition enough to permit the medical use of botanical cannabis products by seriously ill persons, especially in states that have created medical marijuana programs under state law.
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Prescription Drug Coverage Under Medicaid

Prescription Drug Coverage Under Medicaid

Date: March 12, 2004
Creator: Hearne, Jean & Grady, April
Description: Medicaid is a joint federal-state entitlement program that pays for medical services on behalf of certain groups of low-income persons. It is the third largest social program in the federal budget, exceeded only by Social Security and Medicare and is typically the second largest spending item for states. This report discusses prescription drug policies under the program.
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Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Requirements Concerning the Provision of Interpreters by Hospitals and Doctors

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Requirements Concerning the Provision of Interpreters by Hospitals and Doctors

Date: July 8, 2004
Creator: Jones, Nancy Lee
Description: This report briefly discusses the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), which prohibits discrimination against individuals with disabilities by places of public accommodation. This report specifically discusses a common question of whether or not the ADA requires medical doctors and hospitals to provide an interpreter when they have a patient with a hearing disability.
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Stem Cell Research

Stem Cell Research

Date: August 13, 2004
Creator: Johnson, Judith A. & Williams, Erin
Description: This report provides background on the research and potential applications of research that uses embryonic and adult stem cells. It also provides information about the current federal and state regulatory landscape, related Congressional and international actions, and relevant ethical concerns.
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Federal Funding for Unauthorized Aliens' Emergency Medical Expenses

Federal Funding for Unauthorized Aliens' Emergency Medical Expenses

Date: October 18, 2004
Creator: Siskin, Alison
Description: This report discusses the amount of money spent, as well as the amount of federal funds available to provide emergency medical care to unauthorized (illegal) aliens in the United States. It is extremely difficult to ascertain the amount of money spent for emergency medical care for unauthorized aliens since most hospitals do not ask patients their immigration status. Additionally, prior to the passage of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (P.L. 108-173) on December 8, 2003 there were no federal funds available for the specific purpose of reimbursing hospitals or states for emergency medical care provided to unauthorized aliens (undocumented immigrants).
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Background and Legal Issues Related to Stem Cell Research

Background and Legal Issues Related to Stem Cell Research

Date: October 26, 2004
Creator: Shimabukuro, Jon O.
Description: This report discusses issues regarding stem cell research. With certain restrictions, the President has announced that federal funds may be used to conduct research on human embryonic stem cells. Federal research is limited to "the more than 60" existing stem cell lines that were derived (1) with the informed consent of the donors; (2) from excess embryos created solely for reproductive purposes; and (3) without any financial inducements to the donors. No federal funds will be used for the derivation or use of stem cell lines derived from newly destroyed embryos; the creation of any human embryos for research purposes; or cloning of human embryos for any purposes.
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FDA Regulation of Tobacco Products: A Policy and Legal Analysis

FDA Regulation of Tobacco Products: A Policy and Legal Analysis

Date: December 3, 2004
Creator: Redhead, C. Stephen & Feder, Jody
Description: This report examines the legislative debate over giving FDA the authority to regulate tobacco products and provides some analysis of S. 2461/H.R. 4433. It begins with an overview of the FDA’s 1996 tobacco rule that includes a summary of the agency’s arguments for asserting jurisdiction over tobacco products. That is followed by an analysis of the U.S. Supreme Court decision in FDA v. Brown & Williamson, which overturned the FDA tobacco rule. The report then reviews the 1997 proposed national tobacco settlement, which would have codified the FDA rule and given the agency explicit authority to regulate tobacco products as medical devices. It includes a discussion of the FDA provisions in the McCain tobacco bill, which was introduced and debated in the 105th Congress in an attempt to implement the proposed settlement. The final section of the report summarizes the provisions in S. 2461/H.R. 4433 and discusses some of the key issues, including preemption and the regulation of reduced-risk products.
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Overview of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003

Overview of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003

Date: December 6, 2004
Creator: O'Sullivan, Jennifer; Chaikind, Hinda; Tilson, Sibyl; Boulanger, Jennifer & Morgan, Paulette
Description: This report examines the the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003, which creates a prescription drug benefit for Medicare beneficiaries and establishes a new Medicare Advantage program to replace the current Medicare+Choice program.
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