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 Decade: 2010-2019
 Year: 2014
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Hospital-Based Emergency Departments: Background and Policy Considerations

Hospital-Based Emergency Departments: Background and Policy Considerations

Date: December 8, 2014
Creator: Heisler, Elayne J. & Tyler, Nancy Leigh
Description: This report describes Emergency departments (EDs), the role they play in the health care delivery system, and current federal involvement in supporting EDs. It then discusses the causes and consequences of three commonly identified and interrelated challenges that EDs face: (1) crowding, (2) providing repeat care to a subset of patients who are frequent users, and (3) providing care to a large population who have behavioral health conditions when an ED lacks the appropriate resources to provide such treatment. The report concludes with policy options that Congress may consider to potentially improve ED functioning and reduce payer costs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Immigration Policies and Issues on Health-Related Grounds for Exclusion

Immigration Policies and Issues on Health-Related Grounds for Exclusion

Date: April 28, 2014
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Description: This report discusses the criteria that foreign nationals must meet before admission to the United States including the reasons why a foreign national might be denied admission, most particularly on health-related grounds. It describes this issue in relation to the recent outbreak of the 2009 H1N1 ("swine flu") virus, and how the outbreak has affected various government agencies, such as the Customs and Border Protection (CBP) agency within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). This report also discusses efforts to confront and address related issues on a legislative front.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs

Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs

Date: March 24, 2014
Creator: Finklea, Kristin M.; Bagalman, Erin & Sacco, Lisa N.
Description: This report looks at ways that prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs), which maintain statewide electronic databases of prescriptions dispensed for controlled substances, can help to deter prescription drug misuse.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Number of Veterans That Use VA Health Care Services: A Fact Sheet

The Number of Veterans That Use VA Health Care Services: A Fact Sheet

Date: June 3, 2014
Creator: Bagalman, Erin
Description: This report provides data on the number of veterans and VA health care users, and discusses the allegations of long delays in treatments.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Veterans Affairs: Presumptive Service Connection and Disability Compensation

Veterans Affairs: Presumptive Service Connection and Disability Compensation

Date: November 18, 2014
Creator: Panangala, Sidath Viranga; Shedd, Daniel T. & Moulta-Ali, Umar
Description: This report discusses presumptive service connection, its legislative history, and current challenges in making evidence-based determinations of presumptions. It also discusses the Agent Orange Act (P.L. 102-4) and suggests implications of the process established by the act for future presumptive service-connected determinations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Regulation of Clinical Tests: In Vitro Diagnostic (IVD) Devices, Laboratory Developed Tests (LDTs), and Genetic Tests

Regulation of Clinical Tests: In Vitro Diagnostic (IVD) Devices, Laboratory Developed Tests (LDTs), and Genetic Tests

Date: December 17, 2014
Creator: Sarata, Amanda K. & Johnson, Judith A.
Description: In vitro diagnostic (IVD) devices are used in the analysis of human samples, such as blood or tissue, to provide information in making health care decisions. Examples of IVDs include pregnancy test kits or blood glucose tests for home use; laboratory tests for infectious disease, such as HIV or hepatitis, and routine blood tests, such as cholesterol and anemia; and tests for various genetic diseases or conditions. More recently, a specific type of diagnostic test--called a companion diagnostic--has been developed that may be used to select the best therapy, at the right dose, at the correct time for a particular patient; this is often referred to as personalized or precision medicine. This report provides an overview of federal regulation of IVDs by FDA, through the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act (FFDCA) and the Public Health Service Act (PHSA), and by CMS, through the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) of 1988.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Regulation of Clinical Tests: In Vitro Diagnostic (IVD) Devices, Laboratory Developed Tests (LDTs), and Genetic Tests

Regulation of Clinical Tests: In Vitro Diagnostic (IVD) Devices, Laboratory Developed Tests (LDTs), and Genetic Tests

Date: March 27, 2014
Creator: Sarata, Amanda K.
Description: In vitro diagnostic (IVD) devices are used in the analysis of human samples, such as blood or tissue, to provide information in making health care decisions. Examples of IVDs include pregnancy test kits or blood glucose tests for home use; laboratory tests for infectious disease, such as HIV or hepatitis, and routine blood tests, such as cholesterol and anemia; and tests for various genetic diseases or conditions. More recently, a specific type of diagnostic test--called a companion diagnostic--has been developed that may be used to select the best therapy, at the right dose, at the correct time for a particular patient; this is often referred to as personalized or precision medicine. This report provides an overview of federal regulation of IVDs by FDA, through the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act (FFDCA) and the Public Health Service Act (PHSA), and by CMS, through the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) of 1988.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Federal Food Safety System: A Primer

The Federal Food Safety System: A Primer

Date: January 17, 2014
Creator: Johnson, Renée
Description: This report discusses concerns about food safety, the resources required to ensure food safety, and whether federal food safety laws themselves, first enacted in the early 1900s, have kept pace with the significant changes that have occurred in the food production, processing, and marketing sectors since then.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Preventing the Introduction and Spread of Ebola in the United States: Frequently Asked Questions

Preventing the Introduction and Spread of Ebola in the United States: Frequently Asked Questions

Date: December 5, 2014
Creator: Lister, Sarah A.
Description: This report answers common legal and policy questions about the potential introduction and spread of Ebola Virus Disease in the United States.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. and International Health Responses to the Ebola Outbreak in West Africa

U.S. and International Health Responses to the Ebola Outbreak in West Africa

Date: October 29, 2014
Creator: Salaam-Blyther, Tiaji
Description: In March 2014, an Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak was reported in Guinea, West Africa. The outbreak is the first in West Africa and has caused an unprecedented number of cases and deaths. The outbreak is continuing to spread in Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia (the "affected countries"); it has been contained in Nigeria and Senegal, and has been detected in Mali. As of October 22, 2014, more than 10,000 people have contracted EVD, more than half of whom have died. This report focuses on the health impacts of the outbreak and discusses U.S. and international responses to those health challenges.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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