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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Marine Corps Drawdown, Force Structure Initiatives, and Roles and Missions: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information regarding the Marine Corps that characterizes itself as a crisis response expeditionary force, which is task organized and able to conduct operations across the entire spectrum of military operations. The report discusses the force reduction and shaping programs, force structure initiatives, marine corps roles, missions, and force structure. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463067/
Open Ocean Aquaculture
This report discusses four general areas related to open ocean aquaculture: (1) operational and business-related challenges; (2) potential economic impacts; (3) potential environmental impacts; and (4) the legal and regulatory environment. It summarizes recent executive and legislative branch actions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462814/
The Endangered Species Act: A Primer
The Endangered Species Act (ESA)1 receives significant congressional attention. The associated power and reach of its comprehensive protection for species identified as endangered or threatened with extinction has ignited concern that there be appropriate bounds on this power. The following discussion provides an overview and background on the various features of the ESA that contribute to its stature and yet spark an ongoing debate over its implementation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9678/
The Endangered Species Act: A Primer
The Endangered Species Act (ESA)1 receives significant congressional attention. The associated power and reach of its comprehensive protection for species identified as endangered or threatened with extinction has ignited concern that there be appropriate bounds on this power. The following discussion provides an overview and background on the various features of the ESA that contribute to its stature and yet spark an ongoing debate over its implementation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9669/
Agreements to Promote Fishery Conservation and Management in International Waters
Declining fish populations threaten an important food source. Natural catastrophes, pollution, habitat destruction, and overfishing contribute to the depletion of fish stocks. Overexploitation of fishery resources often occurs when management allows expanding and increasingly efficient fishing fleets to continue harvesting dwindling supplies. Although prevalent, overexploitation is not universal and its extent varies among areas, species, and fisheries. This report discusses the issue of overfishing and its possible consequences, as well as domestic and international efforts to combat overfishing. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs341/
Marine Dead Zones: Understanding the Problem
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs740/
Marine Protected Areas: An Overview
Marine protected areas (MPAs) are generally defined as areas reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment. This report identifies a number of issues related to establishing MPAs in the United States. It begins by defining the concept and administrative actions taken to provide spatial protection in marine areas. It then considers some of the key issues and potential benefits and costs of designating additional MPAs. It concludes by considering potential areas of congressional interest for the 111th Congress. Existing federal laws related to the use of MPAs are summarized in the Appendix. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29650/
U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea: Living Resources Provisions
This report describes provisions of the LOS Convention relating to living marine resources and discusses how these provisions comport with current U.S. marine policy. As presently understood and interpreted, these provisions generally appear to reflect current U.S. policy with respect to living marine resource management, conservation, and exploitation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87275/
Whales and Sonar: Environmental Exemptions for the Navy's Mid-Frequency Active Sonar Training
This report discusses laws related to the protection of marine mammals when using mid-frequency active sonar including the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), the Endangered Species Act (ESA), the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), and the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA). The report discusses each of the laws generally, and then reviews the litigation surrounding the Navy's compliance with these laws in the context of using the sonar for training purposes off California's coast. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87337/
Effects of Radiation from Fukushima Daiichi on the U.S. Marine Environment
The massive Tohoku earthquake and tsunami of March 11, 2011, caused extensive damage in northeastern Japan, including damage to the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power installation, which resulted in the release of radiation. This report discusses concerns about the potential effects of this released radiation on the U.S. marine environment and resources. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99054/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10102/
U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea: Living Resources Provisions
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10072/
Ocean Dumping Act: A Summary of the Law
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1007/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10028/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10054/
The Marine Mammal Protection Act: Reauthorization Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10041/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10029/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10027/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1861/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 106th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1860/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10053/
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea: Living Resources Provisions
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs135/
Marine Mammal Protection Act: Reauthorization Issues for the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1407/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5135/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5132/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5131/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5137/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5130/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5138/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5134/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5139/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5136/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5133/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 109th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8264/
Onshore and Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing and Operations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8502/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5128/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5124/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5129/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5126/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5125/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5127/
Active Military Sonar and Marine Mammals: Events and References
The deployment of active sonar by the U.S. Navy and its potential impacts on marine mammals has been an ongoing issue of intense debate; regulatory, legislative, and judicial activity; and international concern. This report summarizes legal and political events related to active sonar and marine mammals since 1994. This report summarizes some of the more significant recent events pertaining to active military sonar, in particular. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8633/
U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea: Living Resources Provisions
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5090/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5140/
Outer Continental Shelf: Oil and Gas Leasing and Revenue
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1167/
Deep Seabed Mining: U.S. Interests and the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea
On July 29, 1994, the United States signed the Agreement Relating to the Implementation of Part XI of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982. This agreement substantially reforms the seabed mining provisions of the 1982 Convention, which the United States found objectionable. In signing the Agreement, President Clinton accepted provisional application of it which enables the United States to participate in the International Seabed Authority (ISA) and its organs and bodies. On November 16, 1994, the U.N. Law of the Sea Convention entered into force without accession by the United States.The treaty document was referred to the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations late in the 103d Congress and awaits committee action in the 104th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs230/
Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Lands: Leasing for Oil and Natural Gas Exploration and Development
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8610/
Marine Mammal Protection Act Amendments of 1994
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs97/
Chapter 12 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code: Reorganization of a Family Farmer or Fisherman
Chapter 12 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code dealing with “family farmer” reorganization, temporarily extended 11 times since its original enactment, is made permanent by enactment of the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act, P.L. 109-8. It is amended to include “family fisherman” as well. This report surveys the highlights of this chapter digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9105/
Active Military Sonar and Marine Mammals: Events and References
The deployment of active sonar by the U.S. Navy and its potential impacts on marine mammals has been an ongoing issue of intense debate; regulatory, legislative, and judicial activity; and international concern. This report summarizes legal and political events related to active sonar and marine mammals since 1994. This report summarizes some of the more significant recent events pertaining to active military sonar, in particular. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7920/